2 Fats & Oils Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids. From the Greek word “lipos”, meaning fat.Fats are greasy and not soluble in water.Fat is one of 3 nutrients (others are carbohydrates and protein) that provide energy.High fat diets are linked to heart disease, obesity, and cardiovascular related problems.
3 Fats & Oils Fat is the most concentrated source of food energy. There are nine calories per gram of fat as compared to four calories per gram for carbohydrate and protein.Fats are digested more slowly than carbohydrates or protein, so you feel full longer after eating high fat foods.Dietary diseases related to too much fat in your diet include stroke and heart disease.
4 Functions of Fats & Oils Carrier for fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K (remember…Ants Don’t Eat Kangaroos)Concentrated source of energy,9 calories per gram (twice the amount of carbohydrates)Adds flavor in foodSatisfies hunger as it remains in the stomach longerProtects internal organs, like the heart and kidney from injuryInsulates the body from shock and temperature changesNutritional needs for fat are 1 Tablespoon per day
5 Fatty Acids There are several types of fatty acids No more than 30% of total caloriesNo more than 10% of total fat should come from saturated fat20% should be from monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat sources
6 Saturated FatsSaturated fats – most come from animal sources except palm and coconut oilUsually solid at room temperatureSaturated fat is the major ingredient in baked goods, processed meats, convenience foods, snack foods and imitation dairy productsThey raise the LDL and HDL levels of cholesterol in the bloodExamples include meat, cream, whole milk and cheeses, poultry skin, butter, shortening and lard
7 Unsaturated Fats Monounsaturated fats Found in both plants and animals Lower LDL and raise HDL levels of cholesterol in the blood.Examples include - olive oil, olives, avocados, peanuts and peanut oil, canola oil and coconut oilPolyunsaturated fatsLiquid at room temperatureThey come from plants and are healthier because they balance cholesterol levels in the bloodLower both the LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in the bloodExamples include – safflower oil, corn oil, soybean, and cottonseed oils
8 Trans FatsThese are mono or polyunsaturated fats which go through a process that changes liquid fat to solid fatThis is called hydrogenationTrans fats raise cholesterol and are considered unhealthy
9 CholesterolA fatlike substance that exists in animal foods and body cells. It is not found in plant foods.Our bodies make cholesterol and it is an important part of every cell.Cholesterol becomes a problem when it attaches to artery walls in the form of plaque. If the plaque detaches and travels to the heart, it causes a heart attack. If it detaches and travels to the brain, it causes a stroke.Cholesterol is thought to be a major contributor to heart disease and atherosclerosis.
10 CholesterolIt is recommended that daily intake of cholesterol be below 200 mg.The body manufactures all the cholesterol it needs without additional intake.TypesThe body has HDL (good) cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterolHigh levels of LDL cholesterol is related to heart disease and obesity