Fats & Oils Basic Nutrients Unit
Fats & Oils Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids.
From the Greek word “lipos”, meaning fat. Fats are greasy and not soluble in water. Fat is one of 3 nutrients (others are carbohydrates and protein) that provide energy. High fat diets are linked to heart disease, obesity, and cardiovascular related problems.
Fats & Oils Fat is the most concentrated source of food energy.
There are nine calories per gram of fat as compared to four calories per gram for carbohydrate and protein. Fats are digested more slowly than carbohydrates or protein, so you feel full longer after eating high fat foods. Dietary diseases related to too much fat in your diet include stroke and heart disease.
Functions of Fats & Oils
Carrier for fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K (remember…Ants Don’t Eat Kangaroos) Concentrated source of energy,9 calories per gram (twice the amount of carbohydrates) Adds flavor in food Satisfies hunger as it remains in the stomach longer Protects internal organs, like the heart and kidney from injury Insulates the body from shock and temperature changes Nutritional needs for fat are 1 Tablespoon per day
Fatty Acids There are several types of fatty acids
No more than 30% of total calories No more than 10% of total fat should come from saturated fat 20% should be from monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat sources
Saturated Fats Saturated fats – most come from animal sources except palm and coconut oil Usually solid at room temperature Saturated fat is the major ingredient in baked goods, processed meats, convenience foods, snack foods and imitation dairy products They raise the LDL and HDL levels of cholesterol in the blood Examples include meat, cream, whole milk and cheeses, poultry skin, butter, shortening and lard
Unsaturated Fats Monounsaturated fats Found in both plants and animals
Lower LDL and raise HDL levels of cholesterol in the blood. Examples include - olive oil, olives, avocados, peanuts and peanut oil, canola oil and coconut oil Polyunsaturated fats Liquid at room temperature They come from plants and are healthier because they balance cholesterol levels in the blood Lower both the LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in the blood Examples include – safflower oil, corn oil, soybean, and cottonseed oils
Trans Fats These are mono or polyunsaturated fats which go through a process that changes liquid fat to solid fat This is called hydrogenation Trans fats raise cholesterol and are considered unhealthy
Cholesterol A fatlike substance that exists in animal foods and body cells. It is not found in plant foods. Our bodies make cholesterol and it is an important part of every cell. Cholesterol becomes a problem when it attaches to artery walls in the form of plaque. If the plaque detaches and travels to the heart, it causes a heart attack. If it detaches and travels to the brain, it causes a stroke. Cholesterol is thought to be a major contributor to heart disease and atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol It is recommended that daily intake of cholesterol be below 200 mg. The body manufactures all the cholesterol it needs without additional intake. Types The body has HDL (good) cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol High levels of LDL cholesterol is related to heart disease and obesity
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