Presentation on theme: "chemical elements that humans must consume in large quantities"— Presentation transcript:
1 chemical elements that humans must consume in large quantities Macronutrientschemical elements that humans must consume in large quantities
2 What is a macronutrient? A chemical element that humans must consume in large quantitiesThese nutrients are…CarbohydrateProteinFat
3 CarbohydratesA Carbohydrate is a nutrient that is the main source of energy for the body.Carbohydrates supply four calories of energy per gram of food and should make up 45-65% of your diet.This macronutrient includes sugars, starches, and fiber.There are two types of carbohydrates: Simple and Complex.The body can store only limited amounts of carbsExcess carbs are stored as fat
4 Simple carbohydratesSimple Carbohydrates are sugars that enter the bloodstream rapidly and provide quick energy.These carbs provide calories but few vitamins and minerals.Sugars are found naturally in fruits, honey, and milk.Processed sugar, or table sugar, is added to food during processing.Processed sugar is found in cakes, candy, and other sweet desserts, as well as in ketchup, spaghetti sauce, and soda pop.
5 Complex carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates are starches and fibers.Starch is a food substance that is made and stored in most plants.Fiber is the part of grains and plants that cannot be digested.
6 Which carbohydrates are better for you? Simple or Complex?
7 Complex Carbohydrates Most of the calories in your diet should come from COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES.Complex carbohydrates are rich in vitamins and minerals.Starches provide long lasting energy.Sources of complex carbohydrates include grains such as bread and pasta, and vegetables such as potatoes and beans.
8 Terms to know… Glucose Glycogen A simple sugar and an important carbohydrate that provides energy within cells.GlycogenA molecule that functions as the secondary long-term storage source of carbohydrates.
9 When you eat Complex carbohydrates… When energy is needed glycogen is converted back to glucose.The glycogen is stored in the muscles.The remaining glucose is changed to glycogen.Some glucose is used by cells to provide energy and heat for the body.The carbs are changed by saliva and other digestive juices to a glucose.
10 FiberFiber is the part of grains and plant foods that cannot be digested.There are two types of fiber: Soluble and InsolubleInsoluble fiber helps prevent constipation and other intestinal problems by binding with water. Also helps to reduce the risk of colon cancer.Soluble fiber helps to reduce cholesterol level and your risk of heart disease.Insoluble fiber: binds with water to help produce bowl movements. Good sources include wheat products, leafy vegetables, and fruits.Soluble fiber: Good sources include oatmeal, beans, and barley.
11 The Adequate intake for fiber is… What are some other high-fiber super stars?The Adequate intake for fiber is…14g per 1000 Calories
12 ProteinA nutrient that is needed for growth, and to build and repair body tissues is a protein.Also needed to regulate body processes and to supply energy.Proteins supply four calories of energy per gram of food and should make up 10-30% of your diet.There are two different kinds of proteins: complete proteins and incomplete proteins.Proteins make up more than 50% of your total body weight.Proteins form part of every cell in your body.Your skin, nails, and hair are mostly protein.Help your body maintain strength and resist infection.A daily diet deficiency in protein cab stunt your growth, affect the development of certain tissue, and affect your mental development.Excess is burned as energy or stored as fat.
13 Amino Acids The building blocks that make up proteins are amino acids. The body needs 20 amino acids to function properly. Your body can produce only 11 of these amino acids.The nine amino acids that the body cannot produce are essential amino acids.These nine essential amino acids must come from the foods you eat.
14 Complete proteinA protein that contains all of the essential amino acids is complete protein.Examples of complete proteins are meat, fish, poultry, milk, yogurt, and eggs.The soybean is the ONLY plant food that provides all nine essential amino acids.
15 Incomplete ProteinsA protein from plant sources that does not contain all of the essential amino acids is an incomplete protein.There are three categories of incomplete proteins:Different plant sources of incomplete proteins can be combined to obtain all of the essential amino acids you need.Important for vegetarians to get all of the essential amino acids.GrainsLegumesNuts and SeedsWhole grainsPastasCornDried beansPeasLentilsWalnutsAlmondsFlax Seeds
16 FatsA nutrient that provides energy and helps the body store and use vitamins is fat.Fats supply nine calories of energy per gram of food and should make up 25-35% of your diet.The body needs fats to maintain body heat, maintain an energy reserve, and build brain cells and nerve tissues.There are two types of fats: Saturated and Unsaturated.Fats store and transport fat-soluble vitamins, including A, D, E, and K.Fats contribute to the taste and texture of many foods.Fats are stored as fat tissue that surrounds and cushions internal organs.
17 Saturated FatsA type of fat found in dairy products, solid vegetable fat, and meat and poultry is a saturated fat.Saturated fats contribute to the level of cholesterol in a person’s blood.A food-like substance made by the body and found in certain foods is cholesterol.Usually solid at room temperature.Saturated fats contribute to the level of cholesterol in a person’s blood.Dietary cholesterol is found in foods of animal origin, such as meats and dairy products.A person’s blood cholesterol level is a combination of dietary cholesterol and cholesterol produced by the body.
18 UNSATURATED FATSA type of fat obtained from plant products and fish is called unsaturated fats.There are two types of unsaturated fats: polyunsaturated and monounsaturated.PolyunsaturatedMonounsaturatedSunflowerCornSoybean OilsOlive OilCanola OilUsually liquid at room temperature.Visible fat is fat that can be seen when looking at food.Invisible fat is fat that cannot be seen when looking at food (a piece of cake containing eggs and shortening).
19 Trans-Fatty AcidsFatty Acids that are formed when vegetable oils are processed into solid fats are called trans- fatty acids.This process is called hydrogenation.You can identify foods which contain trans fat by looking on the labels for “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil” or “vegetable shortening”.Increases your LDL or “bad cholesterol”.The body handles trans-fatty acids in the same way that it handles saturated fats.Trans fatty acids appear to raise blood cholesterol levels.Found in vegetable shortening, some margerines, crachers, cookies, donuts, snack foods, and other foods.