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Nutrition Junior Health. Do Now Define Nutrients. Define Nutrients. Define calorie. Define calorie. What are the body’s function/Daily Caloric intake:

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Junior Health. Do Now Define Nutrients. Define Nutrients. Define calorie. Define calorie. What are the body’s function/Daily Caloric intake:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Junior Health

2 Do Now Define Nutrients. Define Nutrients. Define calorie. Define calorie. What are the body’s function/Daily Caloric intake: % What are the body’s function/Daily Caloric intake: % –Protein=? –Carbs=? –Fats=?

3 Nutrients A compound in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning. A compound in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning. There are 6 classes of nutrients. There are 6 classes of nutrients. - Carbohydrates - Protein - Fats - Vitamins - Minerals - Water

4 Recommended Dietary/Daily Allowance The Government’s recommendations. The Government’s recommendations. A daily dietary intake that meets nutrient requirements. A daily dietary intake that meets nutrient requirements. –Maintains good health. –Decreases risk to diet-related illness. diet-related illness.

5 Nutrients and Energy Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats provide energy for the body because they contain CALORIES. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats provide energy for the body because they contain CALORIES. Calorie: a unit used to measure energy in food. Calorie: a unit used to measure energy in food.

6 How do you measure the energy in food? Calories – a unit used to measure energy Calories – a unit used to measure energy Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram Proteins = 4 calories per gram Fats = 9 calories per gram The body stores extra energy from carbohydrates, fats, or proteins you eat as either glycogen or body fat. The body stores extra energy from carbohydrates, fats, or proteins you eat as either glycogen or body fat.

7 How Many Calories? 31 grams of carbs = 31 grams of carbs = 6 grams of fat = 6 grams of fat = 8 grams of protein = 8 grams of protein =

8 The Carbohydrates Starches Starches Fibers Fibers Sugars Sugars Provide energy in the form of glucose.

9 Carbohydrates A class of nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fibers. A class of nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fibers. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy, supplying four (4) calories per gram. Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy, supplying four (4) calories per gram % of the days caloric intake 55-60% of the days caloric intake Carbohydrates are classified into simple or complex. Carbohydrates are classified into simple or complex.

10 Simple Carbohydrates Definition; Called “simple sugars”. Called “simple sugars”. Includes glucose. Includes glucose. Found naturally in foods. Found naturally in foods.Examples; Table sugar & honey. Table sugar & honey. Candy & soda. Candy & soda. Apples, melons, berries & oranges. Apples, melons, berries & oranges. Spinach, broccoli & carrots. Spinach, broccoli & carrots. Milk & ice cream. Milk & ice cream.

11 Complex Carbohydrates Definition Combination of starch (energy) and fiber (helps with bodily functions). Combination of starch (energy) and fiber (helps with bodily functions). During digestion these starches break down to sugars. During digestion these starches break down to sugars.Examples Bread, cereals, pasta, Bread, cereals, pasta, rice, potatoes, yams, rice, potatoes, yams, corn & peas. corn & peas. Beans; chick peas, Beans; chick peas, kidney & lima. kidney & lima.

12 The Role of Carbohydrates Before your body can use carbohydrates it must first convert them to Glucose. Before your body can use carbohydrates it must first convert them to Glucose. Glucose – a simple sugar and the body’s main fuel. Glucose – a simple sugar and the body’s main fuel. Glycogen is glucose that is stored in the liver and muscles until needed. Glycogen is glucose that is stored in the liver and muscles until needed. Excess Carbohydrates is stored as adipose tissue or body fat. Excess Carbohydrates is stored as adipose tissue or body fat.

13 Fiber Fiber is a plant form of carbohydrate that helps maintain the health of the digestive tract. Fiber is a plant form of carbohydrate that helps maintain the health of the digestive tract. –binds with cholesterol and carries it out of the body –helps control diabetes by balancing blood glucose –reduces risk of heart disease. Fiber may also help to control body fat. High fiber diet fills up a person sooner on fewer calories. Fiber may also help to control body fat. High fiber diet fills up a person sooner on fewer calories. The body needs about 25 grams of fiber per day. The body needs about 25 grams of fiber per day. What are some sources of fiber? What are some sources of fiber?

14 Protein Function in the body? Body’s last source of energy. Body’s last source of energy. –4 calories per gram. Contains amino acids; building blocks used to repair the body. Contains amino acids; building blocks used to repair the body. Builds & repairs body tissue. Builds & repairs body tissue. Helps body function properly. Helps body function properly % of day’s caloric intake % of day’s caloric intake. YES Is it an energy nutrient? YES

15 Role of Proteins The body’s machinery, and involved in the function of all cells. The body’s machinery, and involved in the function of all cells. Protein is needed to build and repair body tissues, including muscles. Protein is needed to build and repair body tissues, including muscles. Protein also keeps skin, nails, and hair healthy, and defends against germs. Protein also keeps skin, nails, and hair healthy, and defends against germs. Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein and provide energy. Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein and provide energy. Where are proteins found? Where are proteins found?

16 Complete Protein Definition- provides the body with all the amino acids needed to build & repair. Found in; meat, fish, milk, eggs & cheese. Found in; meat, fish, milk, eggs & cheese.

17 Incomplete Protein Definition; A protein source low in essential amino acids. Definition; A protein source low in essential amino acids. Two or more incomplete proteins together provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids. (whole grain bagel with peanut butter) Two or more incomplete proteins together provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids. (whole grain bagel with peanut butter) Food examples; Legumes (beans), nuts & whole grains. Food examples; Legumes (beans), nuts & whole grains.

18 Fats (lipids) Function in the body?  Provides energy (2 nd source used).  9 calories per gram.  Protect against injury (cushion).  Insulates body.  Carries Vitamins A, D, E & K.  No more than 30% of daily caloric intake.  Too much fat is linked to obesity, heart attacks, and other health problems. Is it an energy nutrient? YES

19 Saturated Fats “Bad fat” including Trans Fats. Some come from animal sources; meat, egg, cheese, butter & milk. Some come from animal sources; meat, egg, cheese, butter & milk. Some come in the form of plants; Some come in the form of plants; coconut & palm oil. coconut & palm oil.

20 Unsaturated Fats “Good fat”. Food examples: 1. Vegetable oils; corn oil, canola oil & olive oil. 2. Nuts, seeds & avocado. 3. Seafood; salmon, tuna, flounder, herring & trout.

21 Role of Fats Supply the fuel for the body, transport fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, K), important for a healthy nervous system, helps insulate the body, and serves as a cushion to protect organs against injury. Supply the fuel for the body, transport fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, K), important for a healthy nervous system, helps insulate the body, and serves as a cushion to protect organs against injury. Fats come in two forms: Fats come in two forms:-Saturated-Unsaturated

22 Cholesterol A fat-like substance that is produced in the liver of all animals, found only in foods of animal origin. A fat-like substance that is produced in the liver of all animals, found only in foods of animal origin. Cholesterol level in the body is increased by consuming saturated fats. Cholesterol level in the body is increased by consuming saturated fats. Your body requires some cholesterol – production of hormones and protective sheath around nerve fibers. Your body requires some cholesterol – production of hormones and protective sheath around nerve fibers.

23 Cholesterol Transported through the blood in 2 forms: Transported through the blood in 2 forms: LDL (“Bad”) – tends to deposit cholesterol on the walls of the blood vessels LDL (“Bad”) – tends to deposit cholesterol on the walls of the blood vessels HDL (“Good”) – removes cholesterol from the cells. HDL (“Good”) – removes cholesterol from the cells. Exercise raises HDL, Low fat diet lowers LDL Exercise raises HDL, Low fat diet lowers LDL

24 Nutrients A compound in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning. A compound in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning. There are 6 classes of nutrients. There are 6 classes of nutrients. - Carbohydrates - Protein - Fats - Vitamins - Minerals - Water

25 Vitamins Vitamins Definition- A substance made by plants or animals. Found in; fruits, vegetables & vitamin supplements. Functions 1. Helps regulate important body functions. -digestion, absorption & metabolism. 2. Required for growth & development. 3. Helps with overall body function.

26 Vitamins Each Vitamin performs a different function. Each Vitamin performs a different function. Vitamins do NOT have calories Vitamins do NOT have calories Too little or too much of any vitamin may be harmful. Too little or too much of any vitamin may be harmful. There are two types of vitamins, fat-soluble and water-soluble. There are two types of vitamins, fat-soluble and water-soluble.

27 Fat Soluble Vitamins Absorbed & stored into the body’s fat Absorbed & stored into the body’s fat  Vitamin A  Vitamin D (sun)  Vitamin E  Vitamin K Water Soluble Vitamins Must absorb everyday, not stored Travels & used through body’s fluid. Released through urine.  Vitamin B  Vitamin C

28 Vitamins Vitamin A helps the body fight infections, maintains normal, healthy skin, and promotes growth. Vitamin A helps the body fight infections, maintains normal, healthy skin, and promotes growth. Vitamin D promotes growth and health of bones. Vitamin D promotes growth and health of bones. Vitamin E protects the body cells from attack by oxygen (oxidation), and is also an antioxidant. Vitamin E protects the body cells from attack by oxygen (oxidation), and is also an antioxidant. Vitamin K helps with blood clotting and bone growth. Vitamin K helps with blood clotting and bone growth. Vitamin C strengthens blood vessel walls, helps wounds heal, helps bones grow, strengthens resistance to infections, and is an antioxidant. Vitamin C strengthens blood vessel walls, helps wounds heal, helps bones grow, strengthens resistance to infections, and is an antioxidant. Vitamin B helps the body use protein and form red blood cells. Vitamin B helps the body use protein and form red blood cells.

29 Minerals Function Helps body grow & develop. Helps body grow & develop. Helps hydrate the body Helps hydrate the body Regulate many vital body processes. Regulate many vital body processes. Most important minerals include: -calcium –sodium –potassium -iron Substances that come from water & soil absorbed by plants. Humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat. The human body can not make mineral.

30 Electrolytes Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium are the three minerals that make up the electrolytes. Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium are the three minerals that make up the electrolytes. Electrolytes are minerals that dissolve in the body fluids and carry electrical charges. Electrolytes are minerals that dissolve in the body fluids and carry electrical charges. Electrolytes help maintain the proper balance of fluids in the body, when fluids are lost through sweat, blood, or urine so are electrolytes. Electrolytes help maintain the proper balance of fluids in the body, when fluids are lost through sweat, blood, or urine so are electrolytes. What should you drink if you lost a lot of electrolytes? What should you drink if you lost a lot of electrolytes?

31 Water Most vital nutrient. Function Carries nutrients to your cells and removes wastes. Consume 6-8 cups a day. Consume 6-8 cups a day. Body loses 6-8 cups through urine and sweat a day. Body loses 6-8 cups through urine and sweat a day.


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