2Do Now Define Nutrients. Define calorie. What are the body’s function/Daily Caloric intake: %Protein=?Carbs=?Fats=?
3NutrientsA compound in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning.There are 6 classes of nutrients.- Carbohydrates- Protein- Fats- Vitamins- Minerals- Water
4Recommended Dietary/Daily Allowance The Government’s recommendations.A daily dietary intake that meets nutrient requirements.Maintains good health.Decreases risk todiet-related illness.
5Nutrients and EnergyCarbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats provide energy for the body because they contain CALORIES.Calorie: a unit used to measure energy in food.
6How do you measure the energy in food? Calories – a unit used to measure energyCarbohydrates = 4 calories per gramProteins = 4 calories per gramFats = 9 calories per gramThe body stores extra energy from carbohydrates, fats, or proteins you eat as either glycogen or body fat.
7How Many Calories? 31 grams of carbs = 6 grams of fat = 8 grams of protein =
8Provide energy in the form of glucose. The CarbohydratesProvide energy in the form of glucose.StarchesFibersSugars
9CarbohydratesA class of nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fibers.Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy, supplying four (4) calories per gram.55-60% of the days caloric intakeCarbohydrates are classified into simple or complex.
10Simple Carbohydrates Definition; Called “simple sugars”. Includes glucose.Found naturally in foods.Examples;Table sugar & honey.Candy & soda.Apples, melons, berries & oranges.Spinach, broccoli & carrots.Milk & ice cream.
11Complex Carbohydrates DefinitionCombination of starch (energy) and fiber (helps with bodily functions).During digestion these starches break down to sugars.ExamplesBread, cereals, pasta,rice, potatoes, yams,corn & peas.Beans; chick peas,kidney & lima.
12The Role of Carbohydrates Before your body can use carbohydrates it must first convert them to Glucose.Glucose – a simple sugar and the body’s main fuel.Glycogen is glucose that is stored in the liver and muscles until needed.Excess Carbohydrates is stored as adipose tissue or body fat.
13FiberFiber is a plant form of carbohydrate that helps maintain the health of the digestive tract.binds with cholesterol and carries it out of the bodyhelps control diabetes by balancing blood glucosereduces risk of heart disease.Fiber may also help to control body fat. High fiber diet fills up a person sooner on fewer calories.The body needs about 25 grams of fiber per day.What are some sources of fiber?
14Protein Is it an energy nutrient? YES Body’s last source of energy. Function in the body?Body’s last source of energy.4 calories per gram.Contains amino acids; building blocks used to repair the body.Builds & repairs body tissue.Helps body function properly.10-15 % of day’s caloric intake.Is it an energy nutrient? YES
15Role of ProteinsThe body’s machinery, and involved in the function of all cells.Protein is needed to build and repair body tissues, including muscles.Protein also keeps skin, nails, and hair healthy, and defends against germs.Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein and provide energy.Where are proteins found?
16Complete ProteinDefinition- provides the body with all the amino acids needed to build & repair.Found in; meat, fish, milk, eggs & cheese.
17Incomplete ProteinDefinition; A protein source low in essential amino acids.Two or more incomplete proteins together provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids. (whole grain bagel with peanut butter)Food examples; Legumes (beans), nuts & whole grains.
18Fats (lipids) Function in the body? Provides energy (2nd source used). 9 calories per gram.Protect against injury (cushion).Insulates body.Carries Vitamins A, D, E & K.No more than 30% of daily caloric intake.Too much fat is linked to obesity, heart attacks, and other health problems.Is it an energy nutrient? YES
19Saturated Fats “Bad fat” including Trans Fats. Some come from animal sources; meat, egg, cheese, butter & milk.Some come in the form of plants;coconut & palm oil.
21Role of FatsSupply the fuel for the body, transport fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, K), important for a healthy nervous system, helps insulate the body, and serves as a cushion to protect organs against injury.Fats come in two forms:-Saturated-Unsaturated
22CholesterolA fat-like substance that is produced in the liver of all animals, found only in foods of animal origin.Cholesterol level in the body is increased by consuming saturated fats.Your body requires some cholesterol – production of hormones and protective sheath around nerve fibers.
23Cholesterol Transported through the blood in 2 forms: LDL (“Bad”) – tends to deposit cholesterol on the walls of the blood vesselsHDL (“Good”) – removes cholesterol from the cells.Exercise raises HDL, Low fat diet lowers LDL
24NutrientsA compound in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning.There are 6 classes of nutrients.- Carbohydrates- Protein- Fats- Vitamins- Minerals- Water
25Vitamins Definition- A substance made by plants or animals. Found in; fruits, vegetables & vitamin supplements.Functions1. Helps regulate important body functions.-digestion, absorption & metabolism.2. Required for growth & development.3. Helps with overall body function.
26Vitamins Each Vitamin performs a different function. Vitamins do NOT have caloriesToo little or too much of any vitamin may be harmful.There are two types of vitamins, fat-soluble and water-soluble.
27Water Soluble Vitamins Must absorb everyday, not storedTravels & used through body’s fluid .Released through urine.Vitamin BVitamin CFat SolubleVitaminsAbsorbed & stored into the body’s fatVitamin AVitamin D (sun)Vitamin EVitamin K
28VitaminsVitamin A helps the body fight infections, maintains normal, healthy skin, and promotes growth.Vitamin D promotes growth and health of bones.Vitamin E protects the body cells from attack by oxygen (oxidation), and is also an antioxidant.Vitamin K helps with blood clotting and bone growth.Vitamin C strengthens blood vessel walls, helps wounds heal, helps bones grow, strengthens resistance to infections, and is an antioxidant.Vitamin B helps the body use protein and form red blood cells.
29Minerals Substances that come from water & soil absorbed by plants. Humans absorb minerals from the plants they eat.The human body can not make mineral.FunctionHelps body grow & develop.Helps hydrate the bodyRegulate many vital body processes.Most important minerals include:-calcium –sodium –potassium iron
30ElectrolytesSodium, Chloride, and Potassium are the three minerals that make up the electrolytes.Electrolytes are minerals that dissolve in the body fluids and carry electrical charges.Electrolytes help maintain the proper balance of fluids in the body, when fluids are lost through sweat, blood, or urine so are electrolytes.What should you drink if you lost a lot of electrolytes?
31Water Most vital nutrient. Function Carries nutrients to your cells and removes wastes.Consume 6-8 cups a day.Body loses 6-8 cups through urine and sweat a day.