2 NutrientsSubstances in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning.There are 6 classes of nutrients.- Carbohydrates- Protein- Fats- Vitamins- Minerals- Water
3 Nutrients and EnergyCarbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats provide energy for the body because they contain CALORIES.Calorie: a unit used to measure energy in food.
4 How do you measure the energy in food? Calories – a unit used to measure energyCarbohydrates = 4 calories per gramProteins = 4 calories per gramFats = 9 calories per gramThe body stores extra energy from carbohydrates, fats, or proteins you eat as either glycogen or body fat.
5 How Many Calories? 31 grams of carbs = 6 grams of fat = 8 grams of protein =
6 Provide energy in the form of glucose. The CarbohydratesProvide energy in the form of glucose.StarchesFibersSugars
7 CarbohydratesA class of nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fibers.Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy, supplying four (4) calories per gram.55-60% of the days caloric intakeCarbohydrates are classified into simple or complex.
8 Simple vs ComplexSimple Carbohydrates are sugars that are present naturally in fruits, vegetables, and milk, or added to manufactured food products.Complex Carbohydrates are starches that are found in rice, grains, and potatoes. During digestion these starches break down to sugars.
9 The Role of Carbohydrates Before your body can use carbohydrates it must first convert them to Glucose.Glucose – a simple sugar and the body’s chief fuel.Glycogen is glucose that is stored in the liver and muscles until needed.Excess Carbohydrates is stored as adipose tissue or body fat.
10 FiberFiber is a plant form of carbohydrate that helps maintain the health of the digestive tract.Fiber is not digestible by human beings, but aids in digestion. Fiber also binds with cholesterol and carries it out of the body, and helps control diabetes by balancing blood glucose. Reduces risk of heart disease.Fiber may also help to control body fat. High fiber diet fills up a person sooner on fewer calories.The body needs about 25 grams of fiber per day.What are some sources of fiber?
11 Proteins A class of nutrients that build and maintain body tissue. Proteins form part of every cell in the body.Proteins also supply four (4) calories per gram.10-15 % of day’s caloric intake.
12 Role of ProteinsThe body’s machinery, and involved in the function of all cells.Protein is needed to build and repair body tissues, including muscles.Protein also keeps skin, nails, and hair healthy, and defends against germs.Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein and provide energy.Where are proteins found?
13 ProteinsA teen receives enough daily protein from one egg, three cups of milk, and an assortment of grains and vegetables.Vegetarians get their protein from plant foods.If a person does not get enough protein, the body wastes away its lean tissue and is left defenseless against disease.
14 Fats An energy source for the body. Fats provide nine (9) calories per gram.No more than 30% of daily caloric intake.Too much fat is linked to obesity, heart attacks, and other health problems.
15 Role of FatsSupply the fuel for the body, transport fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, K), important for a healthy nervous system, helps insulate the body, and serves as a cushion to protect organs against injury.Fats come in two forms:-Saturated-Unsaturated
16 Unsaturated Fats Fats that come primarily from vegetable oils. This includes olive oil and corn oil.Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature.
17 Saturated FatsFats that come from animal sources, and are linked with heart disease.They come from meats, whole milk, and butter.Saturated fats are solid at room temperature.Cholesterol is a type of fat made by the body from saturated fats.Some cholesterol is needed by the body’s cells to function properly, however too much cholesterol causes deposits to build up in the arteries and increases the risk for heart attacks and strokes.
18 CholesterolA fat-like substance that is produced in the liver of all animals, found only in foods of animal origin.Cholesterol level in the body is increased by consuming saturated fats.Your body requires some cholesterol – production of hormones and protective sheath around nerve fibers.
19 Cholesterol Transported through the blood in 2 forms: LDL (“Bad”) – tends to deposit cholesterol on the walls of the blood vesselsHDL (“Good”) – removes cholesterol from the cells.Exercise raises HDL, Low fat diet lowers LDL