Presentation on theme: "SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. b."— Presentation transcript:
SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers, limited government, and the issue of slavery.
May 1787 Delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia at the Constitutional Convention to write the Constitution James Madison ◦ Spent one year thinking about how to create a new government. ◦ Is called the “Father of the Constitution”
Virginia Plan ◦ Bicameral (two house) national legislature ◦ Each state sends representatives based on the population of the state New Jersey Plan ◦ Unicameral (one house) national legislature and the creation of the executive and judicial branches ◦ Each state sends the same number of representatives
Created a bicameral (2 house) legislature Senate: the same number of representatives from each state House of Representatives: Representation based on state population Three Fifths Compromise- determined how to count slaves in a state’s population. Three- fifth’s of a state’s slave population would be counted when determining representation. The convention approved the final draft of the Constitution on September 17, 1787.
Federal System of Government Separation of Federal Powers Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch
Power is shared between state and national authorities Some powers are reserved only for states. Others are delegated to the federal government only Still others, concurrent powers, are held by both the federal government and state governments
Created to prevent any one of the three branches (executive, legislative, and judicial) from acquiring too much power. Each branch has its own area of authority, but no one branch has complete power over the government. The constitution also set up a system of checks and balances, in which each branch has the power to check, or stop, the other branches in certain ways to prevent the misuse of power by any one branch. The idea of separation of powers was written about by Baron Montesquieu in his 1748 book, The Spirit of the Laws. He outlined a three way division of powers in England. John Locke, Montesquieu, and other writers saw the concept of the separation of powers as a way to reduce or eliminate the arbitrary power of unchecked rulers.
Makes the Law Two houses elected by the citizens of the state
Carries out the law The Electoral College (group of electors) determines the President. Power to veto acts of Congress and appoints judges for the federal courts
Interpret the law Contains the Supreme Court and several lesser courts Supreme Court justices are appointed for life by the President with the consent of the Senate.