Presentation on theme: "Haruka Iwamura and Kohei Fujikawa"— Presentation transcript:
1 Haruka Iwamura and Kohei Fujikawa Darfur Case StudyHaruka Iwamura and Kohei Fujikawa
2 Outline Historical Background The Crisis Actions of the International CommunityFailures of the International CommunityThe R2P FrameworkWheeler’s CriteriaThe Situation Today
3 Historical Background SudanIndependent since 1956Ex British colony
4 Historical Background Civil War divided between north and south from:South Sudan becameIndependent in 2011
5 Historical Background Ethnicity3 disparate regions unified into a country by Britain. 134 languages.Border doesn’t have much to do with geography or demography.GENERALLY,North of Sudan is ethnically MuslimSouth of Sudan is ethnically black and Christian.
6 Historical Background Capital Khartoum(originally slave market to sell blacks)“Abid”=black peopleMeans slave.-Ruled by Arabs
8 Historical Background - History of peaceful coexistenceHatred derives from the hierarchy of ethnicity from British colonial rule.The paler the skin (the more Arabic,) the better.
9 Historical Background South of Sudan has oil wellsNorth of Sudan has ports to the Red SeaPeople in the north that exported Southern oil made money and stayed in power.
10 Historical Background -South complains for lack of benefits.-The South started a rebellion.South Sudanese WarSouth eventually won 49% of oil revenues
11 Historical Background Western Sudan (Darfur)The Blacks in the West didnot get the benefits sincethey were in Northern Sudan.The Black tribes started a rebellion.Beginning of the Darfur Crisis(2003)
12 The Crisis 2003 spring Two rebel movements SLM (Sudanese Liberation Movement)JEM (Justice and Equality Movement) started a campaign against political and economic marginalization of Darfur.The Sudanese government was in the process of negotiations with Southern armySPLMA (Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army)
13 Sudanese government turns to China and gains weapons to take down the rebellion. - Annihilate villages.-Black agriculturaltended to be rebelsympathizers.
14 Plane bombing during night During the day, helicopter + machinegunsJanjaweed shot civilians and rape womenBurn housesDig up food stores and use oil to destroy themthrow dead bodies on wells.
15 DesertificationArab herders and black farmers had coexisted for 1000s of years despite tension.The Sahara desert extended 100 km in the last 40 yrs.Arab herders sponsored by the government becameJanjaweeds and attacked the Black farmers
16 Over 400 villages destroyed. Aside from governments vs rebelsBandits and militias -> looting humanitarian aid. Commit sexual crimes.Rebels started to fight amongst each otherLeads to more complication
17 Government stanceAvoids serious negotiations with rebel groups.Refused to prosecute crimes against humanity.Expelled humanitarian aid groups300,000 Darfuri refugees in neighboring chad.300,000 killed.Janjaweed also attacked the Chad government in April 20066 million population. 4.7million is affected somehow.
18 Ceasefire Agreement N’Djamena in Chad 2003Darfur Conflict broke out2004AU sent AMIS2005CPAThe end of Sudanese Civil War2006DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement)2007AU/UN hybrid operation started20082009ICC a warrant for President Bashir’s arrest20102011Independence of South Sudan2004 AprilCeasefire Agreement N’Djamena in ChadAU sent AMIS(African Union Mission in Sudan) to Darfur Limitation of AU missionMayThe US sent an investigating commission to DarfurGeorge W Bush acknowledged it as “genocide”
19 UN Security Council Resolution 1556 2004 JulyUN Security Council Resolution 1556UN asked Sudanese government to disarm Arab militias⇒ UN didn’t specify to disarm Janjaweed⇒ Sudanese government didn’t disarm itEmbargoes on weapons against non governmentPeace negotiation started Abuja in NijeriaAU took the lead⇒ The conference didn’t go smoothly
20 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2003Darfur Conflict broke out2004AU sent AMIS2005CPA the end of Sudanese Civil War2006DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement)2007AU/UN hybrid operation started20082009ICC a warrant for President Bashir’s arrest20102011Independence of South Sudan2005 JanuaryComprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)North government – South Sudan Liberation Army(SAL)Sudanese Civil War endedA birth of united governmentThe President : Omar Bashir
21 Embargoes on weapons against Sudanese government 2005 MarchUN Resolution 1591Embargoes on weapons against Sudanese governmentUN Resolution 1593UN decided to entrust a ICC with investigating the violation of international humanitarian law and international human rights law in Darfur
22 Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) Sudanese government – SLA Minnawi 2003Darfur Conflict broke out2004AU sent AMIS2005CPA the end of Sudanese Civil War2006DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement)2007AU/UN hybrid operation started20082009ICC a warrant for President Bashir’s arrest20102011Independence of South Sudan2006 MayDarfur Peace Agreement (DPA)Sudanese government – SLA Minnawi(SLA Abdul Wahid al Nur/ JEM refused to join)
23 (It was suggested by US government since 2005 summer) 2006 MayUNSC Resolution 1679UN decided to shift from AMIS(African Union Mission in Sudan) to UN operation(It was suggested by US government since 2005 summer)⇒ Sudanese government refused the expand of UN force
24 UN Secretary General special envoy Eliasson AU special envoy Salim 2006 NovemberAdis Abeba meetingMediation startedLed by :UN Secretary General special envoy EliassonAU special envoy Salim⇒ both of them retired in 2008 JuneBassole,ex Foreign Minister of Burkina Faso took over
25 Darfur AU/UN mission UNAMID 2003Darfur Conflict broke out2004AU sent AMIS2005CPA the end of Sudanese Civil War2006DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement)2007AU/UN hybrid operation started20082009ICC a warrant for President Bashir’s arrest20102011Independence of South Sudan2007 JuneSudanese government agreed to AU/UN hybrid operationUNSC Resolution 1769Darfur AU/UN mission UNAMID・The protection of civilians・Monitoring and verifying implementation of agreement・Contribution to the promotion of human rights and law・Monitoring and reporting the situation along the borders with Chad and Central Africa※ (Bashir sent a letter to Kofi Annan. Time-buying tactic?)
26 Peace negotiation Arusha in Tanzania 2007 AugustPeace negotiation Arusha in Tanzania2007 OctoberPeace negotiation Sirte in LibyaSLA Abdul Wahid al Nul /JEM didn’y participateNo ceasefire agreement
27 Beijing Summer Olimpics Criticism for Chinese reaction to Darfur 2003Darfur Conflict broke out2004AU sent AMIS2005CPA the end of Sudanese Civil War2006DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement)2007AU/UN hybrid operation started20082009ICC a warrant for president Bashir’s arrest20102011Independence of South Sudan2008 AugustBeijing Summer OlimpicsCriticism for Chinese reaction to Darfurby:・Alan Wolfe (US republican)・Segolene Royal (candidate of French President)・Steven Spielberg (he turned down the position of art adviser of Olimpics )
28 ICC promulgated a warrant for President Bashir’s arrest 2003Darfur Conflict broke out2004AU sent AMIS2005CPA the end of Sudanese Civil War2006DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement)2007AU/UN hybrid operation started20082009ICC a warrant for president Bashir’s arrest20102011Independence of South Sudan2009 MarchICC promulgated a warrant for President Bashir’s arrest⇒ Sudanese government refused⇒ Govenmet expeled 13 NGOs from Sudan2010 FebruaryFramework agreement for settelment f Sudan conflictSudanese government - JEMJEM left
29 South Sudan Referendum Decided South Sudan’s independence 2003Darfur Conflict broke out2004AU sent AMIS2005CPA the end of Sudanese Civil War2006DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement)2007AU/UN hybrid operation started20082009ICC a warrant for president Bashir’s arrest20102011Independence of South Sudan2011 JanuarySouth Sudan ReferendumDecided South Sudan’s independence2011 JulyRepublic of South Sudan
30 Failures of the Int’l Community Peacekeeping OperationsAMIS-African Union Mission in Sudan (AU) 2004Only multilateral organization willing to risk soldiers with consent of Sudanese regime.Inexperienced in finances and military defense matters.Deployed after heaviest phase of killing was over.
31 Peacekeeping Operations UNAMID- United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UN+AU)Replaced underequipped and underfunded African union peacekeeping mission in Darfur.Resolution operationalized 2008
32 Peacekeeping Operations Did not have the mandate to proactively protect civiliansDependent on funding from EU and USUNAMID- leadership issues
33 Peacekeeping Operations There is no peace in Darfur so there cannot be peacekeeping.Romeo Dallaire argued ,“the clear intent of the resolution was civilian protection. . .the question is what peacekeeperscan realistically do in such a fragile political environment”
34 Failures of the Int’l Community ICC Arrest warrant 2006Thirteen NGOs were expelled.Less information of the crisis came out because NGOs feared being expelled for speaking out.
35 Failures of the Int’l Community Darfur Peace Agreement 2006Failure in disarming the Janjaweed after resolution 1556 and 1564.Only one rebel faction joined. SLA Minawi (JEM and SLA AbdulWahid didn’t)The Darfur rebellion fractured into more than 15 groups along tribal lines after DPA
36 Failures of Human Rights Council Dec HRC sent the High Level Mission to assess human rights situation. Sudan refused to grant access to HLM.Recommendations to SudanTake all necessary measures to prevent attacks on civiliansregular police patrols to refugee and IDP camps
37 Failures of the Int’l Society Possibilities of Intervention-UNSC has authorized military intervention without consent of the government-UN has intervened in internal conflicts as threats to international peace-Groups like Ecowas or NATO have ignored authorization from SC as well- Already an intervention in South of Sudan
38 The R2P Framework-First real case of R2P -R2P was unable to free itself from the political dynamics of the international community for the Darfur Crisis. -Advocates of R2P were not able to agree on an effective strategy.
39 -Russia and China: Oil and arms exports Chechnya, Tibet… -USA War on Terror Afghanistan and Iraq Intelligence from Sudan -Arabs Opposed Western-led intervention in North Africa -Threats to peace of Southern Sudan -Towards the fear of Sudan blocking humanitarian aid
40 R2P overestimates norm of intervention until 2005 Many countries didn’t believe that the Responsibility to Protect fell to the Security CouncilArabs , Africans -> AUOnly Romania and Philippines argued Security Council to be primarily responsible.
41 Ambiguities of the R2P Framework How should civilians be protected?Who does the responsibility fall to?
43 Supreme humanitarian emergency ○- Population in Darfur million4.7 million is affected by Darfur Conflict some how ＝more than ¾- Around 400,000 people were killed- Millions of refugees- Is the worst humanitarian case in 21st centurySupreme humanitarian emergency
44 Does peace keeping work in Darfur? Necessity/Last Resort ×- Not enough military force was sent to stop the conflict and help the civilians×- AU in 2004, 150 soldiers ⇒ in 2005, 7000 soldiers- UNAMID in 2009, soldiers (＝ the largest scale in 21st century)BUT there is no effective peace agreement in Darfur(DPA in 2006 did not work)Does peace keeping work in Darfur?Necessity/Last Resort
45 Positive Humanitarian outcome ×- Still the conflict lasts in Darfur- In Independence of South Sudan⇒ Since then the conflict became worse- No effective peace agreement in Darfur(DPA in 2006 is not important because of the absence of some militia groups)- Arrest warrant to president Bashir in 2009, but still not arrested- NGOs in Darfur release less information, because they are afraid of being expelledPositive Humanitarian outcome
46 - International society didn’t want to repeat the disaster like Rwanda ○- International society didn’t want to repeat the disaster like Rwanda- AU wanted to solve the problem in Africa, and help AfricansHumanitarian Motives
47 ○- According to the UN Charter, humanitarian intervention is not permitted without UNSC’s resolution⇔ BUT in 1999 an aerial bombardment by NATO in Serbia without UNSC’s resolution- Non interventionState sovereignty, self-determination should be respected⇔ BUT in humanitarian intervention to Rwanda inWHY NOT IN DARFUR?
48 Hundred of thousands of refugees → Chad ○According the UN charter, if there’s a threat to the stability of the international society, intervention is allowed.Hundred of thousands of refugees → ChadLegality
49 ○ - No fact that intervention was done to protect only government / anti-government groups- US’s reverse selectivityUS China ⇔ ICCBUT US decided to use ICC to do something for Darfur
50 Situation Today in Darfur The Conflict still lasts in DarfurAccording to the Human Rights Watch’s report, since 2010 December, serious abuse has increasedGovernment attacks people who are related to anti government groups ⇒ More than 70,000 people had to shelter-attack, aerial bombing to the villages-residents have been killed-house have been razed-massive looting has taken place-cutting the road to the neighbor village
51 Situation Today in Darfur Minni Minawi Leader of SLA (Sudanese Liberation Army) Sighned DPA (Darfur Peace Agreement) in ~2010 December Governmental presidental adviser Chairperson of the Transitional Darfur Regional Authority ⇒ dismissed, back to Juba (capital of South Sudan) takes p arms again Because of the absence of SLA Abdul Wahid al Nur/ JEM DPA did not work, but now DPA does not mean anything