North-South Muslim/Christian Arab/Black Tribal Fragmentation 1973 Agreement – Abrogated 10 years later Peace agreement signed in 2005; slow implementation
Rebels demand government reform: claim Darfur neglected by Arab government Rebels (SLA and JEM) inflict heavy casualties on government troops Government responds by arming janjaweed militias (Arabs)
Comprised mostly of members of Arab nomadic tribes who have been in conflict with settled farmers in Darfur. Janjaweed has been translated as “devil on a horse” in Arabic Janjaweed in military fatigues in Geneina.
After attacking and looting, Janjaweed begin to burn the village of Um Zeifa
In addition to killing and expelling members of a village, the Janjaweed burn their food stores and poison wells so that the survivors cannot return. A government soldier burning the food storage of the villagers in Marla.
2.5 million refugees and IDPs in Sudan and neighboring Chad. Three generations of farmers, formerly self-sufficient, now forced to live in a camp.
Thousands die each month from the effects of inadequate food, water, health care, and shelter in a harsh desert environment. Pictured are graves outside and IDP camp.
Janjaweed shout racial slurs as they destroy the villages While both the Janjaweed and Darfurians have black skin, the Janjaweed persecute the Darfurians because they are non-Arabs. Rape used as weapon of war: stigma in Darfur society and desire to “Arabize” population One refugee: “the Arabs want to get rid of anyone with black skin.... There are no blacks left…” Death toll = 100,000 to 300,000 (mostly children <5 years old), mostly from hunger and disease
2004: US declares the crisis in Darfur to be a genocide First time a genocide declared as such by US while in progress US supports UN resolutions calling on Sudan to end janjaweed attacks and threatening sanctions (China and Russia – heavily invested in Sudanese oil – abstain) Sudan refuses consent for UN force, but allows small African Union contingent (AMIS). Increases to 7000 troops by late 2005 (analogous to Dallas police force trying to patrol area the size of Texas) Mandate: Protect civilians “under imminent threat and in the immediate vicinity” and within its “resources and capability.” AMIS is occasionally targeted by both sides and by simple bandits
Signed only by larger SLM, not smaller JEM. Major provisions: Security: Disarm janjaweed within 6 months (not implemented) Reduce government military forces Rebels to disarm after janjaweed Buffer zones around IDP camps Integrate former rebels into police, military units Establish a commission to work with the United Nations to help refugees and displaced persons return to their homes. Power-Sharing: Transitional Darfur authority created; rebels to have majority locally and some seats nationally Elections at all levels of government by July 2009 Referendum: unification of three Darfur provinces by July 2010
Creates fund for Darfur Reconstruction and Development: $700 million over three years from government Creates a commission to provide compensation to victims of the conflict. Creates transparent process to track the flow of grants and monies from Khartoum into Darfur.
2007: UN Security Council votes to establish UNAMID, a joint AU-UN force tasked with supporting the Darfur Peace Agreement (up to 26,000 troops – but only 9000 deployed as of 2009) Poorly-equipped, lacking helicopters and even reliable vehicles Agrees to abide by wishes of Sudanese government 2009: Sudanese President Bashir indicted for genocide by International Criminal Court -- refuses to renew agreement to UNAMID unless indictment withdrawn