Why has the United Nations ineffective in Darfur?
U.N. Resolutions, ignored, or vetoed! Russia has also held up potential resolutions, fearing their own actions against Chechens could come under scrutiny. 21 U.N. resolutions “calling for action” in Darfur- either vetoed or ignored if passed! The U.S. has been one of the few governments that have pushed for meaningful action against Sudan.
Some activist groups have helped to put pressure on China,
What has the United Nations been able to accomplish….
Finally, because of activism…UN was able to… Some economic sanctions have been passed in the U.N. 2007- resolution to refer case to the International Court of Justice- ICJ 2005 Sudanese Comprehensive Peace Agreement- between North & South- halt to civil war. United Nations helped to broker this agreement!
Warrant for arrest Resolution passed to refer the leader of Sudan to the ICC 2008- Omar el- Bashir charged with “Crimes against Humanity” warrant for his arrest- his military protects him World leaders stay clear of al-Bashir, he is not invited to world conferences, & if leaves country could be arrested.
Tentative peace talks in Darfur 2009- Peace talks between groups in Darfur and Sudanese government. Qatar coordinated. Hybrid African Union- United Nations peacekeeping forces in Darfur today. 2010- 1 st multiparty election & al-Bashir won! (rigged election)
Peace process to Civil War is helping Darfur as well! The civil war in Sudan has killed 10 times as many people as the genocide in Darfur. (2.2 million) Comprehensive Peace agreement- in process between North & South- Hope to bring peace! Much of the violence on both sides have stopped in Darfur. If permanent peace between North & South, hope that permanent peace in Darfur can be reached.
South Sudan was allowed to succeed from North Sudan! 2011 The Government in the North, as promised in the peace accord allowed the Southern part of the country to become independent.
UNAMID African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur
UNMISS United Nations Mission In South Sudan Civilians seeking protection at the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) compound adjacent to Juba International Airport. (Photo: UN Photo/Rolla Hinedi)