Presentation on theme: "WARM UP USE YOUR NOTES, BOOK, AND ATTACHED HANDOUT TO COMPLETE THE BOXES ON THE “SURVIVAL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE”. YOU MAY WORK WITH A PARTNER TO HELP."— Presentation transcript:
WARM UP USE YOUR NOTES, BOOK, AND ATTACHED HANDOUT TO COMPLETE THE BOXES ON THE “SURVIVAL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE”. YOU MAY WORK WITH A PARTNER TO HELP COME UP WITH THE INFORMATION. THIS WILL BE PLACED IN THE WARM UP SECTION OF YOUR INTERACTIVE NOTEBOOK. Y0U WILL HAVE 10 MINUTES OF CLASS TIME. IF YOU DO NOT FINISH, YOU WILL NEED TO COMPLETE IT ON YOUR OWN.
THE MIDDLE AGES (Medieval Period) From the Dark Ages to the High Middle Ages and the late Middle Ages
The Big Questions: How was Western Europe affected by the collapse of Rome? How did the system of feudalism restore order to Western Europe? How did religious beliefs shape life-styles in this period? What events contributed to the end of the Middle Ages?
Introduction While the Byzantine Empire survived in the east, important changes were taking place in Western Europe. Historians call this period of history (from the fall of Rome in 476 A.D. to the 1400s) the Middle Ages (medieval period) – the period between ancient and modern times Barbarian invasions contributed to the defeat of the Romans, and after a period of invasions, they established their own kingdoms in many parts of the former Roman Empire.
THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE DAY: Constant warfare disrupted trade Violence made travel unsafe Bridges and roads fell into disrepair, and cities and towns were abandoned Bandits roamed freely Wealthy families moved to the safety of fortified homes in the country No interest in learning Shortages of food and goods grew Churches and monasteries became the only places where people could read and write
THE FRANKISH KINGDOM The largest of the Germanic kingdoms (in what is now France) Charles Martel (a powerful nobleman) Helped unite the Franks In 732, stopped the advance of Islam at the Battle of Tours (from Spain into France) Pepin (son of Charles Martel) Became king in 751 Took control of northern Italy with the support of the Pope Set the precedent by Frankish kings of creating a powerful army by granting lands to their nobles in exchange for service in the king’s army with their knights
CHARLEMAGNE (Pepin’s son) Became king in 768 Enlarged his kingdom Established a new capital at Aachen, which became a center of learning Constructed a beautiful palace (modeled after court of Rome) Used riches from his conquest to attract scholars and start a school for noble children Was crowned “Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire” in 800 (announcing to the world that Western Europe was separate from the Byzantine Emperor) After Charlemagne’s death, his empire was divided among his heirs
NEW THREATS TO EUROPE New Invasions from the East Slavs and Magyars invaded Central Europe Muslims from N. Africa invaded S. Italy Vikings from Scandinavia were the greatest threat Between 800 and 1000, they launched repeated attacks on Western Europe Spread fear and destruction and committed brutal atrocities Created new trade routes and new settlements (England, Normandy, and Sicily)
Invasions Vikings Magyars and Slavs Muslims
Feudalism (800-1400) The system of government of the Middle Ages To protect themselves from violence and to provide for basic economic needs Kings offered nobles a grant of land (fief) in exchange for loyalty and service The nobleman (vassal) gave homage (allegiance) to the king Helped people survive the breakdown of central government and order Characterized by key social, political, and economic relationships
LEFT SIDE ACTIVITY Draw a feudal hierarchy chart in your notebook
Political Roles Leading nobles controlled political life Built large castles for protection Created large armies of knights King relied on his nobles for his own army Nobles often fought among themselves or challenged the king Civil wars were frequent and nobles grabbed land for themselves Nobles and vassals were responsible for settling disputes and dispensing justice on their fiefs
Social Roles Feudalism provided for a strict class structure based on the control of land and power People were born into a social class and could not change their position Nobles (lords) Knights Serfs Women Obedient to men Had large numbers of children (many died in infancy) Noble women spent their time in prayer and domestic chores Few received an education Peasant women worked closely with their husbands, ran the home, and looked after livestock People lived in extended families (large households)
Economic system - Manorialism The Manor The Lord’s home and surrounding territory (peasant homes, village, and farmland) Produced its own food, clothing, and shelter (trade was dangerous) Varied in size depending on wealth (some nobles had many manors) Peasants (Serfs) Farm laborers gave a portion of their harvest to the lord in return for the lord’s protection Bound to the land and had no voice in most matters Worked long hours to produce the food for all members of society
Manor House Lord and Lady Peasant home Medieval Knight Peasants
Manorialism continued… The Nobles Provided land and protection to the people on his manor Passed laws, required labor, and acted as judges Had almost complete control of everyone living on his land Farming No knowledge of how to enrich the soil or rotate crops 2/3 of the land was cultivated each year (1/3 remained fallow or uncultivated). This was the 3 field system One field devoted to winter crops One to summer crops The other was fallow Bad weather and poor harvests often led to famine and death
LEFT SIDE ACTIVITY Draw a diagram of a typical Medieval Manor
THE CHURCH Roman Catholic Church was single most powerful organization in Western Europe People believed the Church represented God and held the power to send a person to Heaven or Hell. Many nobles left land to the Church when they died, hoping to gain entry into Heaven. (Church was the largest landowner) Church gained additional wealth through tithes (Church taxes) The Church was the main center of learning (Church officials were usually the only ones who could read or write). Rulers often relied on Church officials because they were educated.
THE CHURCH CONTINUED… The head of the Catholic Church was the Pope in Rome Regarded as successor of St. Peter (leader of Jesus’ apostles) Catholics believed the Pope inherited the role of Peter in running the Church Cardinals, Archbishops, and Bishops helped the Pope run the church The Church owned monasteries, abbeys, and convents that were run much like manors
MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN THINKERS St. Augustine (Lived at the time of the fall of Rome) Questioned why God would let barbarians destroy the Christian civilization of Rome Concluded that no earthly city could last forever, only the “City of God” in Heaven is eternal St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Showed how pre-Christian works of philosophy were compatible with Christian teaching Said people should trust both faith and reason Believed in the existence of “natural law” – laws based on reason Believed that citizens have the right to remove rulers who continually enact unjust laws (ruler’s power came from God through the people)
THE CRUSADES (War of the Cross) A series of holy wars between Christian Europeans and Muslims in the Middle East In the 11 th century, the Seljuk Turks took control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) and drove out Christian pilgrims (for hundreds of years, Christians had regularly visited there) In 1095, Pope Urban II called on all Christians to unite and fight a holy crusade to recapture the Holy Land (he was answering a plea from the Byzantine Emperor) Brought rulers and nobles from all over Europe together to fight a common cause
OUTCOME OF THE CRUSADES Brought new goods to Europe, stimulating a rebirth in trade Weakened the Byzantine Empire (silk, rice, spices, coffee, etc.) Contributed to the break down of feudalism Europeans learned about new technology (zero, weapons, etc.) Christian persecution of Jews and Muslims and Muslim persecution of Christians
THE LATER MIDDLE AGES Growth of towns Increased trade led to the growth of towns and cities Rise of a new merchant class Formation of guilds (powerful associations of merchants and craftsmen) New inventions (mills, mechanical clocks) Cities founded Universities Gothic architecture (pointed arches, high spires, stained glass, flying buttresses)
POLITICAL TRADITIONS England developed traditions of liberty and limited self- government Magna Carta Signed by King John in 1215 Nobles forced him to sign an agreement promising not to take away any free man’s property or imprison any free man without following procedures established by law It guaranteed all free men right to trial by jury, forced the king to get consent from a council of nobles before raising taxes, and limited powers of the king Parliament Established by the tradition of later English kings summoning nobles and representatives of towns to grant them new taxes
KEY EVENTS THAT LED TO THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES THE GREAT FAMINE (1313-1322) Heavy rains and flooding spoiled crops and killed livestock Millions of people died Many questioned the Church why it was happening THE BLACK DEATH (1347-1351) Rats with fleas carrying the disease entered Europe from Asia on trading ships About 1/3 of Europe’s population died Some blamed Jews, others claimed it was God’s punishment for sins (Cordoba became a safe haven for Jews in Spain) The labor shortage it caused led large numbers of peasants to escape serfdom (landowners and towns offered them freedom in exchange for work)
Continued… THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR (1337-1453) Between England and France (king of England claimed the French throne) Strengthened royal power in both countries (kings developed large standing armies instead of relying on feudal lords) Created greater national feelings Knights became less important in battle New military technology was introduced (long bow, gunpowder, cannons) Joan of Arc became an inspiration and martyr for the French A young peasant girl who rallied the French troops around the heir to the throne Successfully drove the English out of Orleans and crowned the new French King Was captured and burned at the stake by the English
Continued… THE GREAT SCHISM (1378-1417) The Pope clashes with secular (non-religious) rulers In 1305, a Frenchman was elected Pope and moved the papacy to Avignon in France (it fell under the French King’s influence) In 1378, an Italian was elected Pope and moved the papacy back to Rome French Cardinals claimed the election was unlawful and elected a French Pope to keep the papacy in France This schism (split) greatly weakened the church