Presentation on theme: "WARM UP USE YOUR NOTES, BOOK, AND ATTACHED HANDOUT TO COMPLETE THE BOXES ON THE “SURVIVAL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE”. YOU MAY WORK WITH A PARTNER TO HELP."— Presentation transcript:
1WARM UPUSE YOUR NOTES, BOOK, AND ATTACHED HANDOUT TO COMPLETE THE BOXES ON THE “SURVIVAL OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE”. YOU MAY WORK WITH A PARTNER TO HELP COME UP WITH THE INFORMATION.THIS WILL BE PLACED IN THE WARM UP SECTION OF YOUR INTERACTIVE NOTEBOOK. Y0U WILL HAVE 10 MINUTES OF CLASS TIME. IF YOU DO NOT FINISH, YOU WILL NEED TO COMPLETE IT ON YOUR OWN.
2THE MIDDLE AGES (Medieval Period) From the Dark Ages to the High Middle Ages and the late Middle Ages
3The Big Questions:How was Western Europe affected by the collapse of Rome?How did the system of feudalism restore order to Western Europe?How did religious beliefs shape life-styles in this period?What events contributed to the end of the Middle Ages?
4IntroductionWhile the Byzantine Empire survived in the east, important changes were taking place in Western Europe.Historians call this period of history (from the fall of Rome in 476 A.D. to the 1400s) the Middle Ages (medieval period) – the period between ancient and modern timesBarbarian invasions contributed to the defeat of the Romans, and after a period of invasions, they established their own kingdoms in many parts of the former Roman Empire.
5THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE DAY: Constant warfare disrupted tradeViolence made travel unsafeBridges and roads fell into disrepair, and cities and towns were abandonedBandits roamed freelyWealthy families moved to the safety of fortified homes in the countryNo interest in learningShortages of food and goods grewChurches and monasteries became the only places where people could read and write
6THE FRANKISH KINGDOM The largest of the Germanic kingdoms (in what is now France)Charles Martel (a powerful nobleman)Helped unite the FranksIn 732, stopped the advance of Islamat the Battle of Tours (from Spain into France)Pepin (son of Charles Martel)Became king in 751Took control of northern Italy with the support of the PopeSet the precedent by Frankish kings of creating a powerful army by granting lands to their nobles in exchange for service in the king’s army with their knights
7CHARLEMAGNE (Pepin’s son) Became king in 768Enlarged his kingdomEstablished a new capital at Aachen,which became a center of learningConstructed a beautiful palace(modeled after court of Rome)Used riches from his conquest toattract scholars and start a schoolfor noble childrenWas crowned “Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire” in 800 (announcing to the world that Western Europe was separate from the Byzantine Emperor)After Charlemagne’s death, his empire was divided among his heirs
9NEW THREATS TO EUROPE New Invasions from the East Slavs and Magyars invaded Central EuropeMuslims from N. Africa invaded S. ItalyVikings from Scandinavia were the greatest threatBetween 800 and 1000, they launched repeated attacks on Western EuropeSpread fear and destruction and committed brutal atrocitiesCreated new trade routes and new settlements (England, Normandy, and Sicily)
11Feudalism (800-1400) The system of government of the Middle Ages To protect themselves from violence and to provide for basic economic needsKings offered nobles a grant of land (fief) in exchange for loyalty and serviceThe nobleman (vassal) gave homage (allegiance) to the kingHelped people survive the breakdown of central government and orderCharacterized by key social, political, and economic relationships
12LEFT SIDE ACTIVITYDraw a feudal hierarchy chart in your notebook
13Political Roles Leading nobles controlled political life Built large castles for protectionCreated large armies of knightsKing relied on his nobles for his own armyNobles often fought among themselves or challenged the kingCivil wars were frequent and nobles grabbed land for themselvesNobles and vassals were responsible for settling disputes and dispensing justice on their fiefs
14Social RolesFeudalism provided for a strict class structure based on the control of land and powerPeople were born into a social class and could not change their positionNobles (lords)KnightsSerfsWomenObedient to menHad large numbers of children (many died in infancy)Noble women spent their time in prayer and domestic choresFew received an educationPeasant women worked closely with their husbands, ran the home, and looked after livestockPeople lived in extended families (large households)
15Economic system - Manorialism The ManorThe Lord’s home and surrounding territory (peasant homes, village, and farmland)Produced its own food, clothing, and shelter (trade was dangerous)Varied in size depending on wealth (some nobles had many manors)Peasants (Serfs)Farm laborers gave a portion of their harvest to the lord in return for the lord’s protectionBound to the land and had no voice in most mattersWorked long hours to produce the food for all members of society
16Manor HouseLord and LadyMedieval KnightPeasantsPeasant home
17Manorialism continued… The NoblesProvided land and protection to the people on his manorPassed laws, required labor, and acted as judgesHad almost complete control of everyone living on his landFarmingNo knowledge of how to enrich the soil or rotate crops2/3 of the land was cultivated each year (1/3 remained fallow or uncultivated). This was the 3 field systemOne field devoted to winter cropsOne to summer cropsThe other was fallowBad weather and poor harvests often led to famine and death
18LEFT SIDE ACTIVITYDraw a diagram of a typical Medieval Manor
19THE CHURCHRoman Catholic Church was single most powerful organization in Western EuropePeople believed the Church represented God and held the power to send a person to Heaven or Hell.Many nobles left land to the Church when they died, hoping to gain entry into Heaven. (Church was the largest landowner)Church gained additional wealth through tithes (Church taxes)The Church was the main center of learning (Church officials were usually the only ones who could read or write). Rulers often relied on Church officials because they were educated.
21THE CHURCH CONTINUED…The head of the Catholic Church was the Pope in RomeRegarded as successor of St. Peter (leader of Jesus’ apostles)Catholics believed the Pope inherited the role of Peter in running the ChurchCardinals, Archbishops, and Bishops helped the Pope run the churchThe Church owned monasteries, abbeys, and convents that were run much like manors
22MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN THINKERS St. Augustine (Lived at the time of the fall of Rome)Questioned why God would let barbarians destroy the Christian civilization of RomeConcluded that no earthly city could last forever, only the “City of God” in Heaven is eternalSt. Thomas Aquinas ( )Showed how pre-Christian works of philosophy were compatible with Christian teachingSaid people should trust both faith and reasonBelieved in the existence of “natural law” – laws based on reasonBelieved that citizens have the right to remove rulers who continually enact unjust laws (ruler’s power came from God through the people)
23THE CRUSADES (War of the Cross) A series of holy wars between Christian Europeans and Muslims in the Middle EastIn the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks took control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem) and drove out Christian pilgrims (for hundreds of years, Christians had regularly visited there)In 1095, Pope Urban II called on all Christians to unite and fight a holy crusade to recapture the Holy Land (he was answering a plea from the Byzantine Emperor)Brought rulers and nobles from all over Europe together to fight a common cause
24OUTCOME OF THE CRUSADES Brought new goods to Europe, stimulating a rebirth in tradeWeakened the Byzantine Empire (silk, rice, spices, coffee, etc.)Contributed to the break down of feudalismEuropeans learned about new technology (zero, weapons, etc.)Christian persecution of Jews and Muslims and Muslim persecution of Christians
25THE LATER MIDDLE AGES Growth of towns Increased trade led to the growth of towns and citiesRise of a new merchant classFormation of guilds (powerful associations of merchants and craftsmen)New inventions (mills, mechanical clocks)Cities founded UniversitiesGothic architecture (pointed arches, high spires, stained glass, flying buttresses)
26POLITICAL TRADITIONSEngland developed traditions of liberty and limited self-governmentMagna CartaSigned by King John in 1215Nobles forced him to sign an agreement promising not to take away any free man’s property or imprison any free man without following procedures established by lawIt guaranteed all free men right to trial by jury, forced the king to get consent from a council of nobles before raising taxes, and limited powers of the kingParliamentEstablished by the tradition of later English kings summoning nobles and representatives of towns to grant them new taxes
27KEY EVENTS THAT LED TO THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES THE GREAT FAMINE ( )Heavy rains and flooding spoiled crops and killed livestockMillions of people diedMany questioned the Church why it was happeningTHE BLACK DEATH ( )Rats with fleas carrying the disease entered Europe from Asia on trading shipsAbout 1/3 of Europe’s population diedSome blamed Jews, others claimed it was God’s punishment for sins (Cordoba became a safe haven for Jews in Spain)The labor shortage it caused led large numbers of peasants to escape serfdom (landowners and towns offered them freedom in exchange for work)
28Continued… THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR (1337-1453) Between England and France (king of England claimed the French throne)Strengthened royal power in both countries (kings developed large standing armies instead of relying on feudal lords)Created greater national feelingsKnights became less important in battleNew military technology was introduced (long bow, gunpowder, cannons)Joan of Arc became an inspiration and martyrfor the FrenchA young peasant girl who rallied the Frenchtroops around the heir to the throneSuccessfully drove the English out of Orleansand crowned the new French KingWas captured and burned at the stake bythe English
29Continued… THE GREAT SCHISM (1378-1417) The Pope clashes with secular (non-religious) rulersIn 1305, a Frenchman was elected Pope and moved the papacy to Avignon in France (it fell under the French King’s influence)In 1378, an Italian was elected Pope and moved the papacy back to RomeFrench Cardinals claimed the election was unlawful and elected a French Pope to keep the papacy in FranceThis schism (split) greatly weakened the church