What is a minority? The opposite of majority. Group of people with physical and cultural traits different from those of the dominant group. Minority is defined by more than number or size.
Minorities have several key features. Distinct physical and cultural differences which separate them from the majority. Skin color, disabilities, accent, religion, language. The minority is dominated by the majority. Minority members have fewer opportunities. Lack of education/holds unequal share of goods.
Key features of minorities Minority traits are often believed as the dominant majority to be inferior. Members of the minority have a common sense of identity, with a stronger group loyalty. The majority determines who belongs in the minority through ascribed status.
Race-people who share certain inherited physical characteristics that are considered important within a society. What determines race? Skin color, hair color, hair texture, facial features, head form, and eye color.
3 major divisions of race. Negroid-African Mongoloid-Asian Caucasian-White Some physical characteristics are superior to others because they provide advantages for living in a particular environment. There is no scientific evidence that connects racial characteristics with innate superiority or inferiority.
Ethnicity comes from the Greek word “Ethnos” meaning people or nation. 19 major ethnicities in the world today. Ethnic minority-group identified by cultural religious or natural characteristics. Unique characteristics related to culture or nationality. Defined by its own language, religion, values, beliefs, norms, and customs.
Why are ethnic minorities seen as inferior? Ethnocentrism-judging others in terms of one’s own culture. View that everyone else’s culture is lower than your own. Creates the “us” vs. “them” complex.
Assimilation-the belonging or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society. When members of the minority are integrated into society through assimilation then they are allowed full participation in society. Examples: Anglo-Conformity Melting Pot Accommodations
Anglo meaning American of English descent. Traditional American institutions are maintained. Immigrants are accepted as long as they conform to American society.
Melting pot-all ethnic and racial minorities voluntarily blend together. Tossed salad-traditional values and cultures exist side by side.
Cultural pluralism-desire of a group to maintain a sense of identity separate from the dominant group. Accommodations-extreme form of cultural pluralism. When a minority maintain their own way of life. Learns to deal with or accommodate the dominant culture but remains independent in language and culture.
Sociologist examine historical records and analyze current events in order to find patterns of conflict. 3 basic patterns: Genocide Population transfer Subjugation What is the most extreme pattern of conflict? Genocide
Genocide-systematic effort to destroy an entire population.
A minority is forced to move or relocate from territory controlled by the majority.
Most common pattern of conflict. Process by which a minority group is denied equal access to the benefits of a society. De Jure Subjugation-based on laws De Facto Subjugation: De Fact-used in case law that means the actual, or real, situation regardless of what the law is. Denial of equal access based on everyday practice.
Prejudice-a negative prejudgment of a group and its individual members. An attitude is a distinct combination of feelings. Inclinations to acts and beliefs. 3 aspects of attitude. Affect-feelings Behavior tendencies-inclinations to act. Cognition-beliefs
Negative evaluations that mark prejudice can stem from emotional associations, from the need to justify behavior, or from negative beliefs called stereotypes. A problem with stereotypes arises when they are overgeneralized or just plain wrong. A stereotype can be embedded in a single word or phrase. Stereotypes can be either positive or negative.
A criminal offense committed against a person or property which is motivated in whole or part by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, ethnic/national origin group, or sexual orientation group.
Unfair practices that grow out of common behaviors and attitudes that are part of the structure of society. Seniority systems-promotion and pay increase with years of service. Public education can also be discriminatory.
What are the barriers to African American assimilation? Skin color Early African-American history. Un-equal income levels for African Americans Jobless rates of African Americans are two times that of whites. Hidden employment-unemployment that includes people not counted in the traditional unemployment categories.
Greatest unemployment problem exists in African American teenagers. Underclass-people typically unemployed who come from families that have been poor for generations.
Latino is the term that refers to ethnic minorities in Latin America. One of the fastest growing minorities in the U.S. Year 2000: more Latinos than African- Americans in the U.S. 60% of Latinos living in the U.S. are from Mexico. Latinos are a very diverse group that came to America for different reasons. 50% or more complete high school.
Largest group are from China, Philippines, Japan, India, Korea, and Vietnam. Japanese and Chinese are the most successful. Attracted by the California gold rush in the 1850’s. Began work as railroad builders.
What has been the history of Japanese in the United States? Treated much like the Chinese in the early years. 1940’s during World War II Japanese were placed in internment camps (110,000 people). One of the most successful minorities in the U.S.
Descendants of immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe (Italian, Polish, Irish, Slavic, and Greek).