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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure Section 2: Pattern of Intergroup Relations Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives:  Summarize how sociologists define the terms race, ethnicity, and minority group.  Identify the characteristics that distinguish minority groups from one another. Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Group  Race – a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and who others see as being a distinct group.  Ethnicity – the set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another.  Minority Group – a group of people who, because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices, are singled out and unequally treated. Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Characteristics That Distinguish Minority Groups  Identifiable physical or cultural characteristics  Victims of unequal treatment  Group membership is an ascribed status  Members share strong bonds and a sense of loyalty  Members tend to practice endogamy – marriage within the group Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Objectives:  Distinguish between discrimination and prejudice.  Describe the most common patterns of minority-group treatment. Section 2: Pattern of Intergroup Relations

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Discrimination vs. Prejudice  Prejudice – unsupported generalization about a category of people; involves attitudes and can be positive  Discrimination – denial of equal treatment based on group membership; involves behaviors Section 2: Pattern of Intergroup Relations

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Common Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment  Cultural Pluralism – allows each group within society to keep its unique cultural identity  Assimilation – blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity  Legal Protection – legal efforts to ensure the rights of minority groups  Segregation – practices that physically separate a minority group from the dominant group Section 2: Pattern of Intergroup Relations

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Common Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment  Subjugation – the maintaining of control over a group through force  Population Transfer – transferring a minority population to a new area  Extermination – intentional destruction of the entire targeted population known as genocide Section 2: Pattern of Intergroup Relations (continued)

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Objectives:  Describe the conditions under which minority groups in the United States live.  Explain how government policies have affected the lives of minority groups in the United States. Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Living Conditions of Minorities  African Americans – making gains toward equality, but statistics show members are lagging in education, employment, and income; becoming more politically active  Hispanics – rapidly growing population; lagging in income and education; diverse population Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Living Conditions of Minorities  Asian Americans – contrast between first- generation immigrants, who are often poor, and second-generation, many of whom succeed educationally and financially; viewed as a “model minority,” although this term is resented Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States (continued)

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Living Conditions of Minorities  American Indians – often live on reservations; high poverty and poor education; encouraged to assimilate; taking steps to establish sources of income and better schools  White Ethnics – includes some who assimilate quickly and others who remain victims of prejudice and discrimination; making gains in religious tolerance; good education level Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States (continued)

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Government Policies Towards Minorities  Government policies have both helped and hindered minorities.  For example: In the past, de jure segregation hurt African Americans. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbade racial discrimination Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States


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