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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Section 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social Structure Section 2: Pattern of Intergroup Relations Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Group – a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and who others see as being a distinct group. There are nearly 200 racial categories. Race – a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and who others see as being a distinct group. There are nearly 200 racial categories. ex: Whites, Blacks, Asians – the set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another. Ethnicity – the set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another. ex: national origin, religion, language, customs ex: national origin, religion, language, customs – a group of people who, because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices, are singled out and unequally treated. Minority Group – a group of people who, because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices, are singled out and unequally treated.

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Characteristics That Distinguish Minority Groups Identifiable physical or cultural characteristics Identifiable physical or cultural characteristics Victims of unequal treatment Victims of unequal treatment Group membership is an ascribed status Group membership is an ascribed status Members share strong bonds and a sense of loyalty Members share strong bonds and a sense of loyalty Members tend to practice – marriage within the group Members tend to practice endogamy – marriage within the group

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Prejudice – unsupported generalization about a category of people; involves attitudes and can be positive. Prejudice – unsupported generalization about a category of people; involves attitudes and can be positive. Discrimination – denial of equal treatment based on group membership; involves behaviors. Discrimination – denial of equal treatment based on group membership; involves behaviors. ex: lynching, name calling, rudeness. ex: lynching, name calling, rudeness. n- upheld by the law. Legal Discrimination- upheld by the law. ex: apartheid, Brown vs. Board of Education ex: apartheid, Brown vs. Board of Education

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Institutional Discrimination- an outgrowth of the structure of society. Unequal access to resources of society push minority groups into less powerful positons. Ex: jobs, housing, education. Institutional Discrimination- an outgrowth of the structure of society. Unequal access to resources of society push minority groups into less powerful positons. Ex: jobs, housing, education. Stereotype- oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a group of people. Stereotype- oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a group of people. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy- a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy- a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true. Racism- the belief that ones own race or ethnic group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic groups. Racism- the belief that ones own race or ethnic group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic groups. 5

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Mertons Patterns of Prejudice & Discrimination Timid Bigot- prejudiced person who is afraid to discriminate. Timid Bigot- prejudiced person who is afraid to discriminate. Active Bigot- prejudiced person who discriminates. Active Bigot- prejudiced person who discriminates. All Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who does not discriminate. All Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who does not discriminate. Fair Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who discriminates. Fair Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who discriminates. 6

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Sources of Discrimination & Prej udice 1. Social Environment:Accepted social norms that are learned. 1. Social Environment: Accepted social norms that are learned. 2. Psychological Explanations: a. People have a particular type of personality (authoritarian) a. People have a particular type of personality (authoritarian) b. Frustration and anger b. Frustration and anger Scapegoating- placing blame for ones troubles on an innocent individual or group. 3. Economic Explanations-Prejudice and discrimination arise out of competition for scarce resources. 3. Economic Explanations-Prejudice and discrimination arise out of competition for scarce resources. 7

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment – allows each group within society to keep its unique cultural identity. Cultural Pluralism – allows each group within society to keep its unique cultural identity. – blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity. Assimilation – blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity. – legal efforts to ensure the rights of minority groups. Legal Protection – legal efforts to ensure the rights of minority groups.

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment – practices that physically separate a minority group from the dominant group Segregation – practices that physically separate a minority group from the dominant group ex: ex: United States – the maintaining of control over a group through force. Subjugation – the maintaining of control over a group through force. ex: African Americans-Slavery, South Africa – transferring a minority population to a new area. Population Transfer – transferring a minority population to a new area. ex: Native Americans, Japanese Americans – intentional destruction of the entire targeted population known as genocide. Extermination – intentional destruction of the entire targeted population known as genocide. ex: Jews, Gypsies, Non-Serbs in Bosnia-Herzogonina.

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Living Conditions of Minorities African Americans – making gains toward equality, but statistics show members are lagging in education, employment, and income; becoming more politically active. African Americans – making gains toward equality, but statistics show members are lagging in education, employment, and income; becoming more politically active. Hispanics – rapidly growing population; lagging in income and education; diverse population. Hispanics – rapidly growing population; lagging in income and education; diverse population. Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Living Conditions of Minorities Asian Americans – contrast between first- generation immigrants, who are often poor, and second-generation, many of whom succeed educationally and financially; viewed as a model minority, although this term is resented. Asian Americans – contrast between first- generation immigrants, who are often poor, and second-generation, many of whom succeed educationally and financially; viewed as a model minority, although this term is resented. Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Living Conditions of Minorities American Indians – often live on reservations; high poverty and poor education; encouraged to assimilate; taking steps to establish sources of income and better schools American Indians – often live on reservations; high poverty and poor education; encouraged to assimilate; taking steps to establish sources of income and better schools White Ethnics – includes some who assimilate quickly and others who remain victims of prejudice and discrimination; making gains in religious tolerance; good education level White Ethnics – includes some who assimilate quickly and others who remain victims of prejudice and discrimination; making gains in religious tolerance; good education level Section 3: Minority Groups in the United States


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