Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Sociology3/31/2017CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic RelationsSection 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social StructureSection 2: Pattern of Intergroup RelationsSection 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesChapter 10
2Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Group Race – a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and who others see as being a distinct group. There are nearly 200 racial categories.ex: Whites, Blacks, AsiansEthnicity – the set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another.ex: national origin, religion, language, customsMinority Group – a group of people who, because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices, are singled out and unequally treated.
3Characteristics That Distinguish Minority Groups Identifiable physical or cultural characteristicsVictims of unequal treatmentGroup membership is an ascribed statusMembers share strong bonds and a sense of loyaltyMembers tend to practice endogamy – marriage within the group
4ex: lynching, name calling, rudeness. Sociology3/31/2017Prejudice – unsupported generalization about a category of people; involves attitudes and can be positive.Discrimination – denial of equal treatment based on group membership; involves behaviors.ex: lynching, name calling, rudeness.Legal Discrimination- upheld by the law.ex: apartheid, Brown vs. Board of EducationChapter 10
5Institutional Discrimination- an outgrowth of the structure of society Institutional Discrimination- an outgrowth of the structure of society. Unequal access to resources of society push minority groups into less powerful positons. Ex: jobs, housing, education.Stereotype- oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a group of people.Self-Fulfilling Prophecy- a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true.Racism- the belief that one’s own race or ethnic group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic groups.
6Merton’s Patterns of Prejudice & Discrimination Timid Bigot- prejudiced person who is afraid to discriminate.Active Bigot- prejudiced person who discriminates.All Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who does not discriminate.Fair Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who discriminates.
7Sources of Discrimination & Prejudice Sociology3/31/2017Sources of Discrimination & Prejudice1. Social Environment: Accepted social norms that are learned. 2. Psychological Explanations: a. People have a particular type of personality (authoritarian) b. Frustration and anger Scapegoating- placing blame for ones troubles on an innocent individual or group. 3. Economic Explanations-Prejudice and discrimination arise out of competition for scarce resources.Chapter 10
8Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment Cultural Pluralism – allows each group within society to keep its unique cultural identity.Assimilation – blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity.Legal Protection – legal efforts to ensure the rights of minority groups.
9Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment Segregation – practices that physically separate a minority group from the dominant groupex: United StatesSubjugation – the maintaining of control over a group through force.ex: African Americans-Slavery, South AfricaPopulation Transfer – transferring a minority population to a new area.ex: Native Americans, Japanese AmericansExtermination – intentional destruction of the entire targeted population known as genocide.ex: Jews, Gypsies, Non-Serbs in Bosnia-Herzogonina.
10Living Conditions of Minorities Section 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesLiving Conditions of MinoritiesAfrican Americans – making gains toward equality, but statistics show members are lagging in education, employment, and income; becoming more politically active.Hispanics – rapidly growing population; lagging in income and education; diverse population.
11Living Conditions of Minorities Section 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesLiving Conditions of MinoritiesAsian Americans – contrast between first-generation immigrants, who are often poor, and second-generation, many of whom succeed educationally and financially; viewed as a “model minority,” although this term is resented.
12Living Conditions of Minorities Section 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesLiving Conditions of MinoritiesAmerican Indians – often live on reservations; high poverty and poor education; encouraged to assimilate; taking steps to establish sources of income and better schoolsWhite Ethnics – includes some who assimilate quickly and others who remain victims of prejudice and discrimination; making gains in religious tolerance; good education level