Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic Relations Sociology3/31/2017CHAPTER 10 Racial and Ethnic RelationsSection 1: Race, Ethnicity, and the Social StructureSection 2: Pattern of Intergroup RelationsSection 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesChapter 10
2 Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Group Race – a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and who others see as being a distinct group. There are nearly 200 racial categories.ex: Whites, Blacks, AsiansEthnicity – the set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another.ex: national origin, religion, language, customsMinority Group – a group of people who, because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices, are singled out and unequally treated.
3 Characteristics That Distinguish Minority Groups Identifiable physical or cultural characteristicsVictims of unequal treatmentGroup membership is an ascribed statusMembers share strong bonds and a sense of loyaltyMembers tend to practice endogamy – marriage within the group
4 ex: lynching, name calling, rudeness. Sociology3/31/2017Prejudice – unsupported generalization about a category of people; involves attitudes and can be positive.Discrimination – denial of equal treatment based on group membership; involves behaviors.ex: lynching, name calling, rudeness.Legal Discrimination- upheld by the law.ex: apartheid, Brown vs. Board of EducationChapter 10
5 Institutional Discrimination- an outgrowth of the structure of society Institutional Discrimination- an outgrowth of the structure of society. Unequal access to resources of society push minority groups into less powerful positons. Ex: jobs, housing, education.Stereotype- oversimplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a group of people.Self-Fulfilling Prophecy- a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true.Racism- the belief that one’s own race or ethnic group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic groups.
6 Merton’s Patterns of Prejudice & Discrimination Timid Bigot- prejudiced person who is afraid to discriminate.Active Bigot- prejudiced person who discriminates.All Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who does not discriminate.Fair Weather Liberal- non-prejudiced person who discriminates.
7 Sources of Discrimination & Prejudice Sociology3/31/2017Sources of Discrimination & Prejudice1. Social Environment: Accepted social norms that are learned. 2. Psychological Explanations: a. People have a particular type of personality (authoritarian) b. Frustration and anger Scapegoating- placing blame for ones troubles on an innocent individual or group. 3. Economic Explanations-Prejudice and discrimination arise out of competition for scarce resources.Chapter 10
8 Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment Cultural Pluralism – allows each group within society to keep its unique cultural identity.Assimilation – blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity.Legal Protection – legal efforts to ensure the rights of minority groups.
9 Patterns of Minority-Group Treatment Segregation – practices that physically separate a minority group from the dominant groupex: United StatesSubjugation – the maintaining of control over a group through force.ex: African Americans-Slavery, South AfricaPopulation Transfer – transferring a minority population to a new area.ex: Native Americans, Japanese AmericansExtermination – intentional destruction of the entire targeted population known as genocide.ex: Jews, Gypsies, Non-Serbs in Bosnia-Herzogonina.
10 Living Conditions of Minorities Section 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesLiving Conditions of MinoritiesAfrican Americans – making gains toward equality, but statistics show members are lagging in education, employment, and income; becoming more politically active.Hispanics – rapidly growing population; lagging in income and education; diverse population.
11 Living Conditions of Minorities Section 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesLiving Conditions of MinoritiesAsian Americans – contrast between first-generation immigrants, who are often poor, and second-generation, many of whom succeed educationally and financially; viewed as a “model minority,” although this term is resented.
12 Living Conditions of Minorities Section 3: Minority Groups in the United StatesLiving Conditions of MinoritiesAmerican Indians – often live on reservations; high poverty and poor education; encouraged to assimilate; taking steps to establish sources of income and better schoolsWhite Ethnics – includes some who assimilate quickly and others who remain victims of prejudice and discrimination; making gains in religious tolerance; good education level