3Different types of joint There are 3 different types of joint:1. Immovable (or fixed) joints2. Slightly movable jointsReference to skeletal structures could be enhanced by using a skeleton or skeletal models if available. Use this presentation to remind students of the names of a range of bones. Students must be confident in naming the bones of the skeleton and their position/ location in the body. Without this understanding they will struggle to identify the bones that form joints.3. Movable (or synovial) joints
41. Fixed or immovable joints There are fewer than 10 immovable joints in the body.They are sometimes called fibrous joints because the bones are held together by tough fibres.Immovable joints can be found in the skull and pelvis, where several bones have fused together to form a rigid structure.Fixed or immoveable joints such as those of the flat bones of the skull allow very slight movement – ask students why they should allow a little movement. Movement is necessary for expansion of the soft tissues of the brain and to absorb some of the force of impacts – if joints were completely fixed they might crack with an impact such as a blow on the head.
52. Slightly movable joints Slightly movable joints are sometimes called cartilaginous joints.The bones are separated by a cushion of cartilage. The joints between the vertebrae in the spine are cartilaginous joints.The bones can move a little bit, but ligaments stop them moving too far. This is why we can bend, straighten and rotate through the back, but not too far.bonecartilageboneDiscuss with students the structure of the spinal column and why slightly moveable joints are the most suitable type of joint for the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine areas. Ask them why the sacrum and coccyx areas of the spine are fixed joints? Answer: for attachment of lower back muscles (Sacrum) and balance (coccyx).ligaments
63. Freely movable or synovial joints 90% of the joints in the body are synovial joints. They are freely movable.Synovial joints contain synovial fluid which is retained inside a pocket called the synovial membrane. This lubricates or ‘oils’ the joint.All the moving parts are held together by ligaments.These are highly mobile joints, like the shoulder and knee.Synovial fluidSynovial joints offer a wide range of sporting movement.Synovial membraneKnee
7Connective tissuesConnective tissues are vital to the functioning of joints. There are 3 types of connective tissue:Ligaments are tough, elastic fibres that link bones to bones.Tendons connect muscles to bones.Discussion of the properties of the different connective tissues would be relevant here.Ligaments – are elastic allowing the bones to twist and turn – however if the stress on the ligaments is too great or forceful they can be overstretched or torn (like an elastic band) and will cause injury to the sportsperson. The cruciate ligaments of the knee are commonly injured in sport.Cartilage – is found at the ends of bones and is smooth and slightly flexible providing shock absorption and reducing friction for ease of movement between bones/ jointsTendons – are less elastic and join bone to muscle – like ligaments they can be damaged by the stress and strain of excessive movements – the achilles tendon that joins the foot to the calf muscle (gastrocnemius) can be injured through repeated jumping movements.Cartilage prevents the ends of bones rubbing together at joints. Its slippery surface also helps to lubricate the joint.
8Ligaments and tendons are strengthened by training. Tendons and ligamentsLigaments are responsible for holding joints together. They prevent bones moving out of position during the stresses of physical activity.If they are pulled or twisted too far by extreme physical movements, ligaments can tear and the joint may dislocate.Tendons anchor muscles to bones, allowing the muscles to move the skeleton. Tendons are not very elastic – if they were, then the force produced by muscles would be absorbed instead of creating movement.Tendons can also be torn if subjected to too much force.Ligaments and tendons are strengthened by training.
9Freely movable (synovial) joints The joint capsule is an outer sleeve that protects and holds the knee together.The synovial membrane lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid – an oil like liquid which lubricates the joint, allowing it to move freely.Synovial fluidFemurSynovial membraneCartilageTibiaJoint capsuleSmooth coverings of cartilage at the ends of the bones stops them rubbing together and provide some shock absorption.Students should be able to recognise the key structures of the knee and their function.Ligaments hold the bones together and keep them in place.
10Task… To achieve P2 you need to describe: • The different types of joint and the movements available at each.(Fixed, slightly moveable, synovial/freely movable)• The different types of synovial joint and movements available at each.Types of joints1) Label a Synovial JointCopy the picture of the synovial joint from the internet and label/describe it2) Give a brief description (Up to 50 words each/also picture examples) of each of the following types of joints, and the movement available at each one- Fixed or fibrous- Slightly moveable or cartilaginous- Synovial or freely moveable
11Types of synovial joints In ball and socket joints, the rounded end of one bone fits inside a cup-shaped ending on another bone.Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints.Examples: Shoulders and hips.HipDescribe ball and socket joints at the hip and shoulder. Discuss the movements possible at these joints. How do they help during sport?
12Types of synovial joints Pivot joints have a ring of bone that fits over a bone protrusion, around which it can rotate.These joints only allow rotation.AtlasExamples: The joint between the atlas and axis in the neck which allows you to shake your head.Axis
13Types of synovial joints In saddle joints, the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way, allowing movement forwards and backwards and left to right, but not rotation.Examples: The thumb is the only one.Hinge joints – as their name suggests – only allow forwards and backwards movement.Examples: The knee and elbow.Elbow
14Types of synovial joints Condyloid joints have an oval-shaped bone end which fits into a correspondingly shaped bone end.They allow forwards, backwards, left and right movement, but not rotation.Examples: between the metacarpals and phalanges in the hand.Gliding joints have two flat faces of bone that slide over one another.They allow a tiny bit of movement in all directions.Examples: between the tarsals in the ankle.
16Movement PatternsIn order for us to understand sporting movements, we have to be able to label the possible movements available at a joint, using specific terms.
17Flexion Extension Adduction Abduction When the angle of the joint increasesWhen the angle of the joint decreasesExtensionAdductionMovement towards the midline of the bodyAbductionMovement away from the midline of the body (e.g. A star jump
18Rotation Circumduction The limb moves in a Circle. For example this occurs at the shoulder joint during an ‘Overarm bowl in Cricket’RotationThe limb moves in a circular motion towards the midline of the body. For example this occurs in a ‘golf swing when driving the ball’
19The structure of the elbow joint (hinge) HumerusThe elbow is another complex hinge joint. The hinge between the humerus and ulna allows the arm to bend (Flexion) and straighten (Extension).The elbow also has a pivot joint between the ulna and radius which allows us to rotate (Rotation) the lower arm while keeping the upper arm still.A gliding action occurs between the humerus and radius.The whole joint is encased in a synovial capsule and held together by ligaments.RadiusDemonstrate movements to the class – get them to copy your movements.UlnaLigaments
20Task…3) Find a picture of a player in action. Paste it into the same document that you have been working on.Use arrows to label the picture with each of the following joint types and what movements (flexion/adduction/ rotation etc.) are available at each Joint:- 2 Hinge Joints- 2 Ball and Socket Joints- Gliding Joint- Pivot Joint- Saddle Joint- Condyloid Joints
21E.G. Some suggested answers: Left elbow – involves the humerus, radius and ulna. It is a hinge joint. It is extended.Left wrist – involves the carpals. This is a gliding joint. There is rotation.Left hand – joint between metacarpals and phalanges. This is a condyloid joint. There is abduction and flexion on the phalanges.Right hip – involves the pelvis and femur. This is a ball and socket joint. There is abduction.Knees – involve the femurs, tibias and fibulas. These are hinge joints. There is flexion.