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GCSE Physical Education The Skeletal System Part 1 – The structure of the skeletal system Objectives… 1.To be aware of the bones that make up the skeletal.

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Presentation on theme: "GCSE Physical Education The Skeletal System Part 1 – The structure of the skeletal system Objectives… 1.To be aware of the bones that make up the skeletal."— Presentation transcript:

1 GCSE Physical Education The Skeletal System Part 1 – The structure of the skeletal system Objectives… 1.To be aware of the bones that make up the skeletal system. 2.To consider the particular functions that the skeletal system performs. Part 2 – The role of the skeletal system Objectives… 1.To be aware of how movement occurs through joints. 2.To consider the types of movement that are possible because of the skeletal system.

2 Functions of the skeleton The skeleton performs many functions in the body. Shape – The skeleton gives us our shape and determines our size. Blood cell production – blood cells are made in the bone marrow. Movement – The skeleton allows us to move. Muscles are attached to the bones and move them as levers. Protection – The skeleton protects delicate parts of the body like the brain and lungs. Support – The skeleton supports muscles and organs

3 Shape and Size

4 Support The skeleton acts as a framework. It gives the body support, enabling us to stand and walk upright. The bones of the back and chest support internal organs and help to keep them in place. The bones of the body are held together by ligaments. The skeleton provides a framework for the muscles, which are attached to bones by tendons. Can you imagine what humans would look like if they didn’t have bones to support them?

5 Movement Bones work with muscles to produce movement. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Bones have surfaces that allow for strong attachment. Tendons fuse with the tough Periosteum membrane on the outside of the bone. Muscle Tendon Periosteum Bone

6 Movement

7 Protection Some of our body parts, such as the brain, are very delicate and need protection from external forces. Bones can protect body parts from impacts and injuries. The cranium protects the brain. It encloses the brain entirely in a shell of bone. The rib cage protects the delicate organs of the chest. Can you think of two reasons why the rib cage has gaps in it rather than being a solid shell of bone? cranium

8 Blood cell production Red and white blood cells and platelets are made in the bones. The ends of long bones and some other bones including the ribs, humerus, femur and even vertebrae bones, contain red bone marrow. This is where the blood cells are produced. The shaft of long bones is filled with yellow bone marrow which does not produce blood cells. Red marrow embedded in spongy bone Yellow bone marrow in the shaft

9 Cranium (skull) Sternum (breast bone) Ribs Ilium (part of the pelvis) Humerus Ulna Radius Femur Patella (knee cap) Tibia Fibula Clavicle (collar bone) Naming bones

10 Scapula (shoulder blade) Vertebral column (spine) Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Tarsals Metatarsals FOOT HAND Naming bones

11 Quick TEST – try to do it without looking at your notes

12 Classification of bones – long bones Long bones have a long shaft. They are responsible for a lot of movement. Long bones include the femur, humerus, tibia, fibula, the metatarsals, metacarpals and phalanges. Long bones contain red bone marrow for producing blood cells. Long bone

13 Classification of bones – flat bones Flat bones perform a variety of functions. These include: They have a large surface area. protection for delicate areas, for example, the cranium protects the brain. areas for muscle attachment. Cranium

14 Classification of bones – short bones Short bones are very light and very strong. They are small and squat in shape. The carpals in the wrist and the tarsals in the foot are examples of short bones. carpals tarsals

15 Classification of bones – irregular bones Irregular bones are specially shaped to perform a particular function. Examples include the patella and the vertebrae. The patella is shaped so that the quadriceps tendon slides easily over the knee joint. patella

16 Bones and joint movements

17 GCSE Physical Education The Skeletal System Part 1 – The structure of the skeletal system Objectives… 1.To be aware of the bones that make up the skeletal system. 2.To consider the particular functions that the skeletal system performs. Part 2 – The role of the skeletal system Objectives… 1.To be aware of how movement occurs through joints. 2.To consider the types of movement that are possible because of the skeletal system.

18 Main types of Joint Immovable – no movement allowed (bones of the cranium) Slightly Moveable – a good example is the Joint between the vertebrae Freely moveable – also called Synovial Ball and Socket Hinge Pivot Gliding Saddle Condyloid

19 Movement

20 Our joints allow us to move in a number of different ways –Flexion – the decrease of an angle between two bones at a joint (bending a limb) Eg. ‘Flexing’ your arm when doing a bicep curl in the gym –Extension – The increase of an angle between two bones at a joint (straightening a limb) Eg. At the point of contact with a football the leg is extended –Abduction – taking a limb away from the centre line of the body Eg. When stepping out to play a shot in badminton the leg is abducted –Adduction – Bringing a limb back in towards the centre line of the body Eg. When hitting a forehand tennis stroke, after contact the arms comes back to the centre line of the body –Rotation – where a bone turn on its axis Eg. When turning the head to look sideways the pivot joint in the neck is allowing rotation

21 Ball and Socket Joint – such as the hip Movement allowed –Flexion –Extension –Rotation –Adduction –Abduction

22 Hinge Joint – such as the elbow Movement allowed –Flexion and Extension only Elbow

23 Pivot Joint – such as the neck Allows rotation only Is found in the neck where the atlas and axis work to allow to turn our heads

24 Gliding Joint – such as the bones in the hand These joints glide across each other to allow slight flexion, extension, adduction, abduction Gliding joints have flattened or curved faces. Good examples are the carpal and tarsal bones in the wrist and foot

25 Saddle Joint – such as the thumb These joints have one surface that is convex and the other is concave. These joints allow flexion, extension, adduction, abduction but no rotation

26 Condyloid Joint – such as the wrist These joints appear as a ‘shallow saddle’ These joints allow flexion, extension, adduction, abduction

27 Tendons The role of a tendon is to attach muscle to bone so that when a muscle contracts it moves the bones

28 Ligaments and Cartilage Ligaments Attach bone to bone –Tough fibrous straps –They provide stability to the joint –They help to prevent injury Cartilage Found between the ends of bones Smooth shiny surface Prevents friction Protects bone surface


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