Presentation on theme: "GCSE Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1GCSE Physical Education The Skeletal SystemPart 1 – The structure of the skeletal systemObjectives…To be aware of the bones that make up the skeletal system.To consider the particular functions that the skeletal system performs.Part 2 – The role of the skeletal systemTo be aware of how movement occurs through joints.To consider the types of movement that are possible because of the skeletal system.
2Functions of the skeleton The skeleton performs many functions in the body.1Shape – The skeleton gives us our shape and determines our size.2Support – The skeleton supports muscles and organs.3Protection – The skeleton protects delicate parts of the body like the brain and lungs.4Movement – The skeleton allows us to move. Muscles are attached to the bones and move them as levers.5Blood cell production – blood cells are made in the bone marrow.
4Support The skeleton acts as a framework. It gives the body support, enabling us to stand and walk upright.The bones of the back and chest support internal organs and help to keep them in place.The bones of the body are held together by ligaments.The skeleton provides a framework for the muscles, which are attached to bones by tendons.Can you imagine what humans would look like if they didn’t have bones to support them?
5Movement Bones work with muscles to produce movement. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.Bones have surfaces that allow for strong attachment. Tendons fuse with the tough Periosteum membrane on the outside of the bone.MuscleTendonPeriosteumBone
7ProtectionSome of our body parts, such as the brain, are very delicate and need protection from external forces.Bones can protect body parts from impacts and injuries.The cranium protects the brain. It encloses the brain entirely in a shell of bone.The rib cage protects the delicate organs of the chest.craniumAnswers:The rib cage needs to be flexible enough to allow the movements necessary for breathing.A solid bone rib cage would be extremely heavy, making movement more difficult.Could also point out that the organs of the chest are not quite as delicate as the brain, so solid bone protection is less necessary.Can you think of two reasons why the rib cage has gaps in it rather than being a solid shell of bone?
8Blood cell productionRed marrow embedded in spongy boneRed and white blood cells and platelets are made in the bones.The ends of long bones and some other bones including the ribs, humerus, femur and even vertebrae bones, contain red bone marrow.This is where the blood cells are produced.The shaft of long bones is filled with yellow bone marrow which does not produce blood cells.Yellow bone marrow in the shaft
9Naming bones Cranium (skull) Clavicle (collar bone) Sternum (breast bone)RibsHumerusIlium (part of the pelvis)RadiusUlnaEncourage students to learn both the common name and scientific name of each bone.Patella (knee cap)FemurTibiaFibula
10Naming bones HAND FOOT Scapula (shoulder blade) Vertebral column (spine)HANDCarpalsMetacarpalsEncourage students to learn both the common name and scientific name of each bone.FOOTTarsalsMetatarsalsPhalanges
11Quick TEST – try to do it without looking at your notes Naming bones
12Classification of bones – long bones Long bones have a long shaft.They are responsible for a lot of movement.Long bones include the femur, humerus, tibia, fibula, the metatarsals, metacarpals and phalanges.Long bones contain red bone marrow for producing blood cells.Long boneDiscuss with students the sporting functions of long bones.
13Classification of bones – flat bones Flat bones perform a variety of functions. These include:protection for delicate areas, for example, the cranium protects the brain.areas for muscle attachment.CraniumDiscuss with students the sporting functions of flat bones.They have a large surface area.
14Classification of bones – short bones Short bones are very light and very strong.They are small and squat in shape.The carpals in the wrist and the tarsals in the foot are examples of short bones.carpalsDiscuss with students the sporting functions of short bones.tarsals
15Classification of bones – irregular bones Irregular bones are specially shaped to perform a particular function.Examples include the patella and the vertebrae.patellaDiscuss with students the sporting functions of irregular bones.The patella is shaped so that the quadriceps tendon slides easily over the knee joint.
17GCSE Physical Education The Skeletal SystemPart 1 – The structure of the skeletal systemObjectives…To be aware of the bones that make up the skeletal system.To consider the particular functions that the skeletal system performs.Part 2 – The role of the skeletal systemTo be aware of how movement occurs through joints.To consider the types of movement that are possible because of the skeletal system.
18Main types of JointImmovable – no movement allowed (bones of the cranium)Slightly Moveable – a good example is the Joint between the vertebraeFreely moveable – also called SynovialBall and SocketHingePivotGlidingSaddleCondyloid
20Movement Our joints allow us to move in a number of different ways Flexion – the decrease of an angle between two bones at a joint (bending a limb)Eg. ‘Flexing’ your arm when doing a bicep curl in the gymExtension – The increase of an angle between two bones at a joint (straightening a limb)Eg. At the point of contact with a football the leg is extendedAbduction – taking a limb away from the centre line of the bodyEg. When stepping out to play a shot in badminton the leg is abductedAdduction – Bringing a limb back in towards the centre line of the bodyEg. When hitting a forehand tennis stroke, after contact the arms comes back to the centre line of the bodyRotation – where a bone turn on its axisEg. When turning the head to look sideways the pivot joint in the neck is allowing rotation
21Ball and Socket Joint – such as the hip Movement allowedFlexionExtensionRotationAdductionAbduction
22Hinge Joint – such as the elbow Movement allowedFlexion and Extension onlyElbow
23Pivot Joint – such as the neck Allows rotation onlyIs found in the neck where the atlas and axis work to allow to turn our heads
24Gliding Joint – such as the bones in the hand These joints glide across each other to allow slight flexion, extension, adduction, abductionGliding joints have flattened or curved faces.Good examples are the carpal and tarsal bones in the wrist and foot
25Saddle Joint – such as the thumb These joints have one surface that is convex and the other is concave.These joints allow flexion, extension, adduction, abduction but no rotation
26Condyloid Joint – such as the wrist These joints appear as a ‘shallow saddle’These joints allow flexion, extension, adduction, abduction
27TendonsThe role of a tendon is to attach muscle to bone so that when a muscle contracts it moves the bones
28Ligaments and Cartilage Attach bone to boneTough fibrous strapsThey provide stability to the jointThey help to prevent injuryCartilageFound between the ends of bonesSmooth shiny surfacePrevents frictionProtects bone surface