Presentation on theme: "OBHS Physical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1OBHS Physical Education ANATOMY – The Skeletal System
25 Major Functions There are five major functions of the skeleton: 1. Shape and support2. Movement3. Protection4. Blood Production5. StorageRemember : Should Mothers Protect Babies Skins
3Movement - Our muscles are attached to our bones in a way Shape and Support - This is our body's framework. It provides shape for our body, holds our vital organs in place and allows us to have a good posture.Movement - Our muscles are attached to our bones in a waywhich allows movement.Protection - Protects our delicate organs e.g.-SKULL protectsthe BRAIN. RIB CAGE protects the HEART and LUNGS etc.Blood Production - Red and white blood cells areproduced in the bone marrow found in many bones.RED CELLS carry oxygen to the muscles to enable them towork. They are red in colour because they carry haemoglobin.WHITE CELLS fight infection in the body.Storage- minerals like calcium are stored in the bones to add strength
5Don’t be confused… The Foot The Chest Clavicle – collar bone Scapula – shoulder bladeThe ArmRadius - thumb side lowerUlna - finger side lowerHumerus - upper arm – “funny bone”The HandCarpals - wrist bonesMetacarpals – handThe FootMetatarsals - footTarsals - ankle –think “T” for “toes”The LegFibula - small lowerTibia - large lowerPatella - knee
6Joints Where bones meet they form JOINTS. The movement of the skeleton is helped byjoints. There are THREE kinds of joints:Fibrous (non-moving e.g.- skull)Cartilagenous (limited movement e.g.-vertebrae of spine)Synovial (a range of movements are available)
7Synovial Joints Most moving joints are SYNOVIAL JOINTS. They are very complexstructures. The Bones arelinked together byligaments and allow a widerange of movements.Features of a synovial joint include:Synovial fluid – Lubricates the jointSynovial Membrane – Seals the jointSynovial Capsule - Surround the joint to prevent leakageThe knee is an example of a synovial joint
8Connective tissue Joints are moved by muscles and bones. These are attached byLIGAMENTS and TENDONS.LIGAMENTS attach boneto bone.TENDONS attach musclee.g.- The knee joint. Movements other than flexion/extension can cause serious ligament damage in hinge joints like the knee. In contact sports like rugby these ligaments are often strained by forces acting in other directions.
9Joints Cont’d Joints can be separated into FOUR categories: Ball and Socket jointHinge jointGliding jointPivot joint
10Ball and SocketTwo examples of this joint in the human body are the hipand shoulder joints. The rounded head of one bone fitsinto a cup-shaped socket of another. This joint allows thegreatest range of movement.PelvisFemur
11Hinge Two examples of this type of joint include those found at the knee and elbow. Try flexing (bending) and extending them.You will find that the movement of the joint can only occur inone direction, just like the hinge of a door.RadiusHumerusUlna
12Gliding In this type of joint, two surfaces which are flat rub against each other. These small bones can move overone another to increase flexibility of the hands forexample. They are stopped from moving too far bystrong ligaments.Carpals
13Pivot This joint is made when one bone twists against another. These are found in the spine. They also allow the head toturn, raise and lower.
14Types of Movement There are many types of movement that the skeleton and muscles can produce. The followingare the most common:FlexionExtensionRotationAbductionAdductionDorsiflexionPlantarflexion
15Types of Movement cont’d FLEXION – Bending the joint. E.g. Bending theknee or elbow. BALL and SOCKET and HINGE arethe main joint types that can produce thismovement.
16Types of Movement cont’d EXTENSION of a joint is where the joint is straightened.BALL and SOCKET and HINGE joints are commonexamples of joints that can produce this movement.Straightening the leg when striking a ball is an example of EXTENSION at the knee (HINGE JOINT)
17Types of Movement cont’d The ROTATION movement can occur at a BALLand SOCKET and a PIVOT joint. e.g. turning thehead or the movement at the shoulder whenswimming backstroke.
18Types of Movement cont’d ABDUCTION and ADDUCTION movements can beproduced by BALL and SOCKET joints. ABDUCTION iswhere a limb moves away from the centre of the body.ADDUCTION is where the limb is moved TOWARDS the centre of the body.
19Joints and Performance Injuries to joints can occur from:Over use (Too much training)Incorrect movement injuries (e.g.-wrong techniques)Impact or twisting (e.g.-twist of knee or elbow from a tackle or collision)Such injuries should be iced immediately, given plenty rest, elevated and compressed to aid recovery and avoid permanent damage.sports injuries clip