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The Respiratory System Part Two. Breathing Respiration Center - Brain Medulla oblongata – (can’t control with our will) – Stimulates of diaphragm and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System Part Two. Breathing Respiration Center - Brain Medulla oblongata – (can’t control with our will) – Stimulates of diaphragm and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Respiratory System Part Two

2 Breathing

3 Respiration Center - Brain Medulla oblongata – (can’t control with our will) – Stimulates of diaphragm and (rib) muscles for Stretch receptors – Receptors that for the nervous which give on mechanical pressure or – stretch receptors in alveoli limit depth to over inflation by expiration

4 Pressure air moves in or out of lungs to pressure with atmosphere – air moves from area of pressure to area of pressure an expanded volume will lower the pressure and allow air to into the lungs through the passages Upon inspiration, the pressure in the alveoli is on the order of 2-3 mmHg below the atmospheric pressure of 760 mmHg The relaxing of the diaphragm reduces the volume and the pressure, allowing air to flow out of lungs provides a pressure some 3 mmHg above atmospheric pressure to accomplish expiration.

5 Inspiration/Expiration

6 Inspiration 1.Diaphragm and the dome shape changes to a flat shape 2.External muscles contract and ribs 3.Volume of cavity increases 4.Pressure inside thoracic cavity Expiration 1.Diaphragm and returned to its natural shape 2.External muscles relax 3.Volume of cavity decreases 4.Pressure inside thoracic cavity

7 External Respiration Gas exchange between the air and lungs

8 Red Blood Cells In each red blood cell, there are approximately hemoglobin Each hemoglobin molecule binds to oxygen Researchers believe that each molecule also binds 4 carbon dioxide molecules (not confirmed)

9 External In lungs, O 2 from air diffuses into and CO 2 from blood diffuses into air within – i.e. O 2 diffuses down into blood, while CO 2 diffuses into air

10 Oxygen 1.5% of oxygen is as gas 98.5% binds to hemglobin (Hb) at the and is transported as HbO 2 or O 2 + Hb → HbO 2

11 Carbon Dioxide Leaves the red blood cell and out into the alveolar air – Leaves as: Dissolved gas Dissociated from Broken down from CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 CO 3 (aq) HCO 3 – (aq) + H + (aq)

12 Internal Respiration Gas exchange between the blood and body cells

13 Internal In tissues, from blood diffuses into tissues and from tissues into

14 Oxygen Oxygen from the hemoglobin molecule due to temperature and differences Oxygen is now free to the concentration gradient and diffuse out of the and into the tissue hemoglobin molecule will bind H + to become concentration

15 Carbon Dioxide 7% dissolves in and is as solution 23% diffuses into, binds to hemoglobin, and is as (HbCO 2 ) CO 2 + Hb → HbCO 2

16 70% diffuses in RBC and is to HCO 3 – and H + by CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → H 2 CO 3 (aq) → HCO 3 – (aq) + H + (aq) – HCO 3 (bicarbonate ions) move out from RBC and is transported via plasma – H + combines with to form reduced (HHb) H + + Hb → HHb Therefore, HCO 3 – and Hb act as to help maintain in blood

17

18 Regulating Breathing Rate Breathing rate and depth to maintain O 2 and CO 2 levels in blood, which are by in the medulla oblongata and and bodies (found in the carotid and aortic arteries) Medulla Oblongata – detects H + concentration (decreasing pH) caused by increased CO 2 in blood – causes to contract Carotid and Aortic Bodies – detect O 2 in blood causing to contract

19 By end of this section you should be able to: identify and give functions for each of the following: – nasal cavity – pharynx – larynx – trachea – bronchi – bronchioles – alveoli – diaphragm and ribs – pleural membranes – thoracic cavity explain the roles of cilia and mucus in the respiratory tract explain the relationship between the structure and function of alveoli

20 describe the interactions of the following structures in the breathing process: – respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata – lungs – pleural membranes – diaphragm – intercostal (rib) muscles – stretch receptors compare the processes of inhalation and exhalation explain the roles of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in stimulating the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata explain the roles of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen ions in stimulating carotid and aortic bodies

21 describe the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen during internal and external respiration, including – location of exchange – conditions that favour exchange (e.g., pH, temperature) explain the roles of oxyhemoglobin, carbaminohemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, bicarbonate ions, and carbonic anhydrase in the transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood write the chemical equations for internal and external respiration

22 Mandatory Vocabulary alveoli, aortic bodies, bicarbonate ions, bronchi, bronchioles, carbaminohemoglobin, carbon dioxide, carbonic anhydrase, carotid bodies, cilia, diaphragm, exhalation, external respiration, hydrogen ions, inhalation, intercostal (rib) muscles, internal respiration, larynx, lungs, mucus, nasal cavity, oxygen, oxyhemoglobin, pH, pharynx, pleural membrane, reduced hemoglobin, respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata, respiratory tract, ribs, stretch receptors, thoracic cavity, trachea


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