4 In the mural, Aztec merchants trade their wares the capital city. Aztec warriors had conquered most of southern Mexico by 1500, and Tenochtitlan was a sign of domination and wealth.The city had temples, pyramids, palaces, and a huge marketplace.Canals carried people through the city; streets were line with flowers and trees.
7 Spanish conqueror Cortes arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519; within two years he had conquered the Aztec Empire. Cortes found allies among nations the Aztecs had conquered; small pox and other diseases killed hundreds of thousands of Indians; the Spanish surrounded the capital city, laying siege to it and starving the Aztec, who surrendered in 1521.
10 Spanish colonial practices were cruel and barbarous Spanish colonial practices were cruel and barbarous. The Catholic Church helped justify this treatment because the Church considered the Indians heathens, unable to be Christianized.The colonies were built with forced Indian labor. Large grants of land, called encomiendas, was given to colonists by the King.The Indians were also forced to labor in mines and to build Spanish churches and other structures.
13 On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo, leader of a small church community, declared Mexico’s independence from Spain. He was supported by a large segment of Criollos (people of pure Spanish descent born in Mexico) as well as Indians and mestitizos. Hidalgo was killed, but the revolution was continued, and independence from Spain was gained in Despite independence, few reforms were created for the mestitizo and Indian populations.
14 Juarez and the Fall of Empire by Jose Clemente Orozco
16 Benito Juarez was a Zapotec Indian who became a lawyer in 1831 Benito Juarez was a Zapotec Indian who became a lawyer in He was dedicated to helping the poor. He became the governor of a region in Mexico in 1848.At the same time, Mexico’s middle class was expressing dissatisfaction with General Santa Anna, Mexico’s military dictator; the people were also tired of the Catholic Church's control of land education , and politics.A civil war ensued, between the conservatives, members of the Church and military, and the liberals. Juarez became president of Mexico and started to carry out legal and liberal reforms.
17 But French Emperor Louis Napoleon Bonaparte III invaded and marched towards Mexico City in The French were defeated in the Cinco de Mayo Battle, but went on to conquer Mexico.Archduke Maximilian of Austria was made emperor of Mexico.
18 Most Mexicans resented being controlled by a foreign emperor and joined with Juarez to fight against the French.In 1867, Juarez’s forces conquered Mexico City, and Maximilian was executed. Juarez continued with his reforms, helping Mexico to become a more democratic and just nation.Juarez died in 1872.
21 In 1876 Pofirio Diaz came to power, inheriting a lot of problems, including debt, lack of technology in farming and mining.Diaz invited foreign investors to build RR, mines, and ports, but the profits from these investments went to a few wealthy Mexicans.Because of the poor living conditions, a revolution again occurred in 1910 and Diaz was forced out.
24 When Diaz was forced from power, Francisco Madero became president, but was overwhelmed from revolts on all sides. General Huerta plotted a coup, and Madero was killed. Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata revolted against Huerta. Venustiano Carranzo became president and his forces killed Zapata in Alvaro Ortega was elected president in 1920, and he brought peace and the rise of the PRI, the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which has ruled Mexico since 1920.
25 Legacy of the Mexican Revolution by Diego Rivera
27 One of the most tangible results of the revolution was redistribution of haciendas. Mexican culture was transformed, as Mexicans quit looking to Spain for their self-image and began to revere their own history, including the Aztec past. Still, there are many problems in Mexico. Corruption, drug cartels, pollution, and the continued mistreatment of Indians are all still problems in modern Mexico.