2 There are 3 major time periods in Mexico’s History Pre ColonialColonialPost ColonialThese time periods can be remembered using the Plaza de Tres Culturas (Plaza of three cultures) located in Mexico City
4 Pre ColonialThere were hundreds of native groups existing in Mexico prior to the Colonial period. 3 major pre-colonial time periodsPre-Classic 2000 b.c. to 300 b.c.Classic 300 b.c. to 900 a.d.Post-Classic Period 900 a.d a.d.
11 MAYAS The Mayas flourished from 600 to 900 A.D. They were known for their advanced culture which included:Written Language, astronomy, mathematics, a calendar, and other scientific advancementsBy 900 AD Mayan society had faded due to invasion and disease.
18 Mixtecs600 a.d. to 1500 a.d.Important influence in South Central Mexico
19 Toltecs900 a.d. to 1187 a.d. Powerful group at Tula.
20 AztecsThe Aztecs were a warlike people who came to power from approximately AD in Mexico. They conquered tribes and demanded tribute from them. Their major accomplishment was the establishment of Tenochtitlan(Mexico City)
22 COLONIAL PERIODThe Colonial Period began with the arrival of Hernando Cortez in With a small force of less than 500 men, he conquered the Aztec Empire.He was helped by:DiseaseAztec Enemies/siege warfare/weaponsThe Legend of Quetzacoatl
32 Post Colonial Independence from SpainWhy? Mestizos/Indians had few rights, Creoles had disagreements with Spanish born-There was little change in power over time.2. Something for nothing does not work.
33 On Sept 16, 1810 called on the Mexicans to revolt against Spain. Father Miguel HidalgoOn Sept 16, 1810 called on the Mexicans to revolt against Spain.
34 Father Jose Morelos Took Hidalgo’s place in leading the revolt. Took Hidalgo’s place in leading the revolt.Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821.
35 Mexico’s InstabilitySpain took with them finances/education. The challenge was to establish trade links/loans from other countries.U.S. Mexican War —Dispute over Texas, the United States gains much of the Southwest part of the United States.
36 French InterventionNapoleon III’s forces invade Mexico and put Napoleon III’s nephew Maximilian in as ruler.
37 Benito JuarezFollowing the removal of the French, Benito Juarez is elected president. Juarez was a full-blooded Indian.
38 Porfiriato PeriodPorfirio Diaz becomes President of Mexico in 1876 an reigns as a virtual dictator until He provided economic stability, industrialization, and improved infrastructure.
39 The Mexican Revolution Revolt against DiazLower classes wanted land/civil rightsEmiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa led peasants in revolt.
40 In 1936 Lazaro Cardenas became president and strengthened land reform. Ejidos—Land given to peasants by the government for farming/living purposes.
41 Other Key Events of the 20th Century 1968 Massacre near the Plaza of three cultures.Late 1970’s oil boom in Mexico1985 Earthquake—Showed PRI Party to be inadequate1988 Presidential Election—Massive accusations of Fraud
42 Other Key Events of the 20th Century 1994 Chiapas Uprising—Anti NAFTA revolt. Desire for more land reform among the poor.2000 Presidential Election—Vicente Fox of the PAN party ends over 70 years of PRI rule.
43 Today the United States’ relationship with Mexico is somewhat complex. Immigration has and will continue to play a key role in the economic and political relationship between the two countries.