2HISTORICAL SURVEY 1810-1815 Hidalgo and Morelos Independence Revolution.Early Republican Period.Liberal Reforma.Positivist Porfiriato.Mexican Revolution.1934 to present Post-Revolutionary Mexico.
3EARLY REPUBLICAN ( )Conservative Agustin De Iturbide Empire.General Antonio de Santa Ana dominated Mexican politics - caudilloAfter abolishing the federal constitution, he faced rebellions in Texas and Yucatan.1836 Texan militias defeated the Mexican Army1845 Texas voted to join the United States.conflict with Texas led to the Mexican-American War US gained the territories of Utah, Calif., Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico & Colorado
4EARLY REPUBLICANIn 1855, Santa Anna was defeated by the Liberals, and a new constitution was approved in 1857.The opposition of the Catholic Church led to the War of Reform ( ), in which the Liberals under the leadership of Benito Juarez seized control of the national government.La Reforma was interrupted by the French occupation, and the installation of Maximilian as emporerOnce again, the Liberals recovered power under the leadership of Benito Juarez, who became President of Mexico until his death in 1872.
5La Reforma Major goals of this movement were: redistribution of land separation of church and stateincreased educational opportunities for the poor.Accomplishments:abolished clerical and communal propertiesabolished separate military and religious courtsMexican Constitution of 1857, guaranteeing many civil and political liberties including: freedom of religion & separation of church and state.Paseo de la Reforma- Mexico City's main avenue, is now named after the Reforma.
6Causes of the Mexican Revolution After losing the national elections, in 1877staged a coup, and became the supreme leader of MexicoRuled until the Revolution in 1910.Porfirio Díaz ( )
7THE PORFIRIATO - the thirty three years of Porfirio Diaz The Mexican economy expanded and the central state solidified – but wages declinedYet, the social costs were staggering. In 1910, 97% of Mexican peasants did not have land.Much of the progress was achieved through foreign investment, especially British and American capital.Foreign capital also modernized the infrastructure, and introduced new technologies.In spite of economic growth, the Diaz regime was very repressive and undemocratic, creating opposition fronts in many different placesMestizo population grew rapidly after 1850
8THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION Several forces opposed the Porfiriato:The Southern Army, led by Emiliano Zapata, and responding to peasant and indigenous demands for land.The Constitutionalist Army, led by Venustiano Carranza.The Northern Army, led by Pancho Villa.
9THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION In 1910, moderate politician Francisco Madero defeated Diaz, under the banner of “Effective Suffrage, No Reelection”.He was assasinated in 1913, and Porfirian General Victoriano Huerta started a counterrevolution.A year later, he was defeated by the Constitutional Army of Venustiano Carranza, in association with the so-called Northwest Group.Carranza was responsible for the preparation of the 1917 Constitution.
10Start of the Revolution Election of 1910Francisco Madero ran against DíazDíaz had Madero arrested on election dayMadero called for Díaz to be overthrownMovement supported by peasants and the middle classDíaz forced to resign in May 1911Francisco Madero ( )
12The Revolution Spreads Madero was unpreparedLack of land reforms led to open rebellionEmiliano Zapata“Land and Liberty”Pancho VillaMadero was overthrown by General Victoriano Huerta in February 1913Madero was eventually assassinatedPancho VillaEmiliano ZapataMural to Zapata in Cuba
14The Revolution Continues Huerta was opposed by a coalition led by Venustiano Carranza (top), Alvaro Obregón (bottom), Villa, Zapata, etc.Huerta was overthrown in 1914Carranza appealed to massesMexican Constitution of 1917Villa and Zapata continued to rebel until 1919 and 1920Carranza was overthrown in 1920Replaced by Obregon ( )
16Women in the Revolution IntellectualsCalled for equal rights, women’s suffrage, and other reformsOften endured threats, imprisonment, etc.SoldaderasServed as nurses, cooks, foraged for food, washed clothes and other servicesServed in the rebel army and the federal armyWomen Soldiers
19Aftermath of Revolution Over one million people diedRevolution lacked a plan, a philosophy, intellectual leadership, or political partiesFarming, ranching, and mining economies were destroyedOil industry improved during revolutionNo major bank or newspaper survived
20Constitution of 1917 Conferred strong powers to the president Laid basis for land reformNo major redistribution until 1934Government ownership of mineral and water resourcesNew labor lawsNo major labor laws until 1931Placed restrictions on the church and clergyChurch went on strike in 1926
21Aftermath Continued Alvaro Obregón (1920-1924) Built schools and encouraged nationalismDiego RiveraMexico becomes a single-party systemParty of Revolutionary Institutions (PRI)Dominated politics until 2000Lázaro Cárdenas ( )Redistributed 45 million acres of land253 million would be redistributed by 1984Promoted economic nationalismNationalized railroads (1937) and oil (1938)