Presentation on theme: "The Mexican Revolutions. HISTORICAL SURVEY 1810-1815 Hidalgo and Morelos Independence Revolution. 1821-1857 Early Republican Period. 1857-1877 Liberal."— Presentation transcript:
The Mexican Revolutions
HISTORICAL SURVEY Hidalgo and Morelos Independence Revolution Early Republican Period Liberal Reforma Positivist Porfiriato Mexican Revolution to present Post-Revolutionary Mexico.
EARLY REPUBLICAN ( ) Conservative Agustin De Iturbide Empire General Antonio de Santa Ana dominated Mexican politics - caudillo After abolishing the federal constitution, he faced rebellions in Texas and Yucatan Texan militias defeated the Mexican Army 1845 Texas voted to join the United States conflict with Texas led to the Mexican- American War US gained the territories of Utah, Calif., Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico & Colorado
EARLY REPUBLICAN In 1855, Santa Anna was defeated by the Liberals, and a new constitution was approved in The opposition of the Catholic Church led to the War of Reform ( ), in which the Liberals under the leadership of Benito Juarez seized control of the national government. La Reforma was interrupted by the French occupation, and the installation of Maximilian as emporer Once again, the Liberals recovered power under the leadership of Benito Juarez, who became President of Mexico until his death in 1872.
La Reforma Accomplishments: abolished clerical and communal properties abolished separate military and religious courts Mexican Constitution of 1857, guaranteeing many civil and political liberties including: freedom of religion & separation of church and state. Paseo de la Reforma- Mexico City's main avenue, is now named after the Reforma. Major goals of this movement were: redistribution of land separation of church and state increased educational opportunities for the poor.
Causes of the Mexican Revolution After losing the national elections, in 1877 staged a coup, and became the supreme leader of Mexico Ruled until the Revolution in Porfirio Díaz ( )
THE PORFIRIATO - the thirty three years of Porfirio Diaz The Mexican economy expanded and the central state solidified – but wages declined Yet, the social costs were staggering. In 1910, 97% of Mexican peasants did not have land. Much of the progress was achieved through foreign investment, especially British and American capital. Foreign capital also modernized the infrastructure, and introduced new technologies. In spite of economic growth, the Diaz regime was very repressive and undemocratic, creating opposition fronts in many different places Mestizo population grew rapidly after 1850
THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION Several forces opposed the Porfiriato: The Southern Army, led by Emiliano Zapata, and responding to peasant and indigenous demands for land. The Constitutionalist Army, led by Venustiano Carranza. The Northern Army, led by Pancho Villa.
THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION In 1910, moderate politician Francisco Madero defeated Diaz, under the banner of “Effective Suffrage, No Reelection”. He was assasinated in 1913, and Porfirian General Victoriano Huerta started a counterrevolution. A year later, he was defeated by the Constitutional Army of Venustiano Carranza, in association with the so-called Northwest Group. Carranza was responsible for the preparation of the 1917 Constitution.
Start of the Revolution Election of 1910 Francisco Madero ran against Díaz Díaz had Madero arrested on election day Madero called for Díaz to be overthrown Movement supported by peasants and the middle class Díaz forced to resign in May 1911 Francisco Madero ( )
Mexican Revolutionaries (1910) Francisco MaderoPancho Villa
The Revolution Spreads Madero was unprepared Lack of land reforms led to open rebellion Emiliano Zapata “Land and Liberty” Pancho Villa Madero was overthrown by General Victoriano Huerta in February 1913 Madero was eventually assassinated Pancho VillaEmiliano Zapata Mural to Zapata in Cuba
Map of the Revolution
The Revolution Continues Huerta was opposed by a coalition led by Venustiano Carranza (top), Alvaro Obregón (bottom), Villa, Zapata, etc. Huerta was overthrown in 1914 Carranza appealed to masses Mexican Constitution of 1917 Villa and Zapata continued to rebel until 1919 and 1920 Carranza was overthrown in 1920 Replaced by Obregon ( )
Timeline of the Revolution
Women in the Revolution Intellectuals Called for equal rights, women’s suffrage, and other reforms Often endured threats, imprisonment, etc. Soldaderas Served as nurses, cooks, foraged for food, washed clothes and other services Served in the rebel army and the federal army Women Soldiers
Women in the Revolution
Aftermath of Revolution Over one million people died Revolution lacked a plan, a philosophy, intellectual leadership, or political parties Farming, ranching, and mining economies were destroyed Oil industry improved during revolution No major bank or newspaper survived
Constitution of 1917 Conferred strong powers to the president Laid basis for land reform No major redistribution until 1934 Government ownership of mineral and water resources New labor laws No major labor laws until 1931 Placed restrictions on the church and clergy Church went on strike in 1926
Aftermath Continued Alvaro Obregón ( ) Built schools and encouraged nationalism Diego Rivera Mexico becomes a single-party system Party of Revolutionary Institutions (PRI) Dominated politics until 2000 Lázaro Cárdenas ( ) Redistributed 45 million acres of land 253 million would be redistributed by 1984 Promoted economic nationalism Nationalized railroads (1937) and oil (1938)