Presentation on theme: "Mexican Revolution via Murals"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mexican Revolution via Murals Dan LutgenRancho Bernardo High School
2 Mexican Revolution via Murals TeotihuacanMexican Revolution via MuralsAs early as 1000 BCE – Toltecs, Aztecs and Maya adorned temples and public building with murals. Murals told stories of everyday life (Mexican Realism).Post-Spanish invasion = Christian muralsMexican Revolution = native Mexican culture again
3 Aztecs called themselves Mexica Tenochtitlan Marketplace by Diego RiveraMountains and lake provide natural defense of city1345 Aztecs built Tenochtitlan at Lake TexcocoSnake on cloth represents Quetzalcoatl- goddess of creationThe city was an important religious center filled with pyramids topped with templesWhat raw materials would be used to create mats?Petates, or mats, were woven out of reedImportance of family as mother carries child in rebozoSlave laborer is identified by simple loin clothMoctezuma II 1502
4 Small pox decimated Aztecs Conquest by Jose OrozcoSpanish ConquestHernan Cortes 1519Aztecs surrender 1521Winged angel shows partnership of Church and CortesFire in background represents widespread destruction of Spanish soldiers and smallpox.Cortes is carrying an iron sword – resting on dismembered bodies of Aztec victimAztecs had no metal to match iron’s strengthWhat is this?Cortes is a machine… symbolic of European technologySmall pox decimated Aztecs
5 United Streaming European Rule video clip under Mexican Rev
6 Absorption of the Indian by Jose Orozco White European, Hernan Cortes, sits with an Indian woman, Malinche.PartnershipSymbolic of mixing of two groups to create mestizo people.Mestizo make up majority of Mexicans todayYet, restraint – many Mexicans consider Mayan Malinche a traitorLegend: Malinche was given to Cortes as a translator – later they produced a sonDead mestizo shows unhappiness and ill-treatment of mestizo
7 Brutal labor of gold mines Colonial Domination by Diego Rivera Cross, Spanish flag and sword represent colonizationYoked to plowCuauhtemoc, last Aztec emperor, bowing to conquistadorsHuge land grants given to Spanish - encomiendasConquistadores use branding iron to brand Indian slaveTotal Indian population fell from 25 million to 1 million by 1700Rivera attempted to summarize 300 yearsDescribe the European faces…Bag of goldEuro faces drawn as animals
9 Mexican Independence 1810-1821 Fight for Liberty by Jose OrozcoMexican IndependenceFather Hidalgo (killed 1811) against Spanish ruleCriollos – Spanish descentColor red – death and violencePriest’s collar and cross – role of Church in rebellionMasses of people – popularity of independence movement among Indians and mestizos.Hidalgo and Father Morelos both executed during war by Mexican creoles (Spanish decedents)Creole Agustin Iturbide then lead independence from Spain, but without reforms of massesWhat do you think a fiery machete represent?Machete is symbol of agriculture and fire is revolt.
11 Juaraz 1831-1872 and the Fall of the Empire by Jose Orozco Juarez - Zapotec Indian - first to bring legitimate reforms to MexicoMexican flag – patriotism of middleclassMachetes in hands of peasantsViolent colorsJuarez leadership came against European intrusion from Spain and FranceControl of Church1855 – overthrew dictator Santa Anna, began reforms1862 – Mexico conquered by France (Napoleon III). Archduke Maximilian of Austria became Emperor of Mexico. Cinco de Mayo = Mexican victory, though French eventually won war.1867- Juarez conquered Mexico City and executed Maximillian Then continued his reforms until his death in 1872
12 Repression during rule of Porfirio Diaz (34 year rule) Repression – History and Perspective of MexicoRepression during rule of Porfirio Diaz (34 year rule)1876 Diaz came to power – dictator for 34 years.Welcomed foreign investorsGovernment forces on horse heavily loaded with weaponsPolice enforced Diaz’ lawsSickle represents farm workersNote force used to control farmers (land fell into hands of huge hacienda owners).
13 Revolution against Porfirian (Porfirio Diaz) Dictatorship 1911 unseated Diaz Peasants lost lands and were forced to work on large haciendas for little wage – conditions near slaveryGovernment forces used to coerce the farm hands to work.Peasants responded by rebelling against government.
14 The Trench by Jose Orozco Mexican RevolutionBy 1910, dissatisfaction of Diaz regime lead to open revolt.“Viva la Revolucion”Red – violent and bloody nature of 10-year long revolutionThree soldiers mirroring the Christian Trinity, add religious element to the movementSharp angles of bodies inject dramaThe carbines and rifle reinforce the atmosphere of revolution
15 Nation Culture changed as Zapata and Madero became heroes. Land Distribution by Diego RiveraNation Culture changed as Zapata and Madero became heroes.1910 – 2% owned land1940 – 33% owned land (President Lazaro Cardenas)Madero became president 1911Most tangible result of revolution was the redistribution of hacienda land to landless1917 Constitution guaranteed lands and factory workers protection
16 1913 – Madero was assassinated Revolts against the new president, Gernal Huerta (died in jail of liver failure 1816) came from caudillos (strongmen) Emiliano Zapata and Pacho Villa (assassinated 1923).1920 Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ruled Mexico from
17 Mural by Diego Rivera showing a unified Mexican society
18 Baile en Tehuantepec, 1928 Diego Rivera painting showing indigenism