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Dan Lutgen Rancho Bernardo High School Mexican Revolution via Murals 1750-1914.

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Presentation on theme: "Dan Lutgen Rancho Bernardo High School Mexican Revolution via Murals 1750-1914."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dan Lutgen Rancho Bernardo High School Mexican Revolution via Murals

2 Mexican Revolution via Murals As early as 1000 BCE – Toltecs, Aztecs and Maya adorned temples and public building with murals. Murals told stories of everyday life (Mexican Realism). Post-Spanish invasion = Christian murals Mexican Revolution = native Mexican culture again Teotihuacan

3 1345 Aztecs built Tenochtitlan at Lake Texcoco Snake on cloth represents Quetzalcoatl- goddess of creation The city was an important religious center filled with pyramids topped with temples Slave laborer is identified by simple loin cloth Mountains and lake provide natural defense of city Importance of family as mother carries child in rebozo What raw materials would be used to create mats? Aztecs called themselves Mexica Moctezuma II 1502 Petates, or mats, were woven out of reed Tenochtitlan Marketplace by Diego Rivera

4 Spanish Conquest Hernan Cortes 1519 Aztecs surrender 1521 Winged angel shows partnership of Church and Cortes Cortes is carrying an iron sword – resting on dismembered bodies of Aztec victim Aztecs had no metal to match iron’s strength Fire in background represents widespread destruction of Spanish soldiers and smallpox. What is this? Cortes is a machine… symbolic of European technology Conquest by Jose Orozco Small pox decimated Aztecs

5 United Streaming European Rule video clip under Mexican Rev

6 Absorption of the Indian by Jose Orozco White European, Hernan Cortes, sits with an Indian woman, Malinche. Symbolic of mixing of two groups to create mestizo people. Mestizo make up majority of Mexicans today Dead mestizo shows unhappiness and ill- treatment of mestizo Partnership Yet, restraint – many Mexicans consider Mayan Malinche a traitor Legend: Malinche was given to Cortes as a translator – later they produced a son

7 Colonial Domination by Diego Rivera Cross, Spanish flag and sword represent colonization Cuauhtemoc, last Aztec emperor, bowing to conquistadors Conquistadores use branding iron to brand Indian slave Brutal labor of gold mines Yoked to plow Bag of gold Describe the European faces… Euro faces drawn as animals Huge land grants given to Spanish - encomiendas Rivera attempted to summarize 300 years Total Indian population fell from 25 million to 1 million by 1700

8 United Streaming Mexican independence clip

9 Fight for Liberty by Jose Orozco Mexican Independence Father Hidalgo (killed 1811) against Spanish rule Color red – death and violence Masses of people – popularity of independence movement among Indians and mestizos. Priest’s collar and cross – role of Church in rebellion What do you think a fiery machete represent? Machete is symbol of agriculture and fire is revolt. Hidalgo and Father Morelos both executed during war by Mexican creoles (Spanish decedents) Creole Agustin Iturbide then lead independence from Spain, but without reforms of masses Criollos – Spanish descent

10 United Steaming video Mexican Revolution

11 Juaraz and the Fall of the Empire by Jose Orozco Juarez - Zapotec Indian - first to bring legitimate reforms to Mexico Mexican flag – patriotism of middleclass Violent colors Control of Church Machetes in hands of peasants 1862 – Mexico conquered by France (Napoleon III). Archduke Maximilian of Austria became Emperor of Mexico. Cinco de Mayo = Mexican victory, though French eventually won war. Juarez leadership came against European intrusion from Spain and France Juarez conquered Mexico City and executed Maximillian Then continued his reforms until his death in – overthrew dictator Santa Anna, began reforms

12 Repression – History and Perspective of Mexico Repression during rule of Porfirio Diaz (34 year rule) Note force used to control farmers (land fell into hands of huge hacienda owners). Sickle represents farm workers Government forces on horse heavily loaded with weapons 1876 Diaz came to power – dictator for 34 years. Welcomed foreign investors Police enforced Diaz’ laws

13 Revolution against Porfirian (Porfirio Diaz) Dictatorship 1911 unseated Diaz Peasants lost lands and were forced to work on large haciendas for little wage – conditions near slavery Government forces used to coerce the farm hands to work. Peasants responded by rebelling against government.

14 The Trench by Jose Orozco Mexican Revolution By 1910, dissatisfaction of Diaz regime lead to open revolt. “Viva la Revolucion” Three soldiers mirroring the Christian Trinity, add religious element to the movement The carbines and rifle reinforce the atmosphere of revolution Red – violent and bloody nature of 10-year long revolution Sharp angles of bodies inject drama

15 Land Distribution by Diego Rivera Most tangible result of revolution was the redistribution of hacienda land to landless 1917 Constitution guaranteed lands and factory workers protection Nation Culture changed as Zapata and Madero became heroes – 2% owned land 1940 – 33% owned land (President Lazaro Cardenas) Madero became president 1911

16 1913 – Madero was assassinated Revolts against the new president, Gernal Huerta (died in jail of liver failure 1816) came from caudillos (strongmen) Emiliano Zapata and Pacho Villa (assassinated 1923 ) Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ruled Mexico from

17 Mural by Diego Rivera showing a unified Mexican society

18 Baile en Tehuantepec, 1928 Diego Rivera painting showing indigenism

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