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Turmoil and Change in Mexico

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1 Turmoil and Change in Mexico
Ch 12 Section 4

2 Santa Anna Fought in the Mexican revolt against Spain.
Served as president on four separate occasions between Was a powerful caudillo- military dictator. Was considered a brilliant politician who knew how to control his people. He would later lead the fight against the U.S. to keep the Texas territory.

3 The Texas Revolt Many U.S. citizens moved to Texas in the 1820’s with the encouragement of Mexico. Slavery was practices by many immigrants but was banned in Mexico. Texas colonists revolted in 1835 led by Stephen Austin. Santa Anna won several Battles but was defeated at The Battle of San Jacinto Where he was captured.

4 The Mexican-American War
Santa Anna was released in exchange for a pledge to free Texas. When the U.S. annexed Texas in 1845, Santa Anna declared war against the U.S. The war took two years and the U.S. won and captured nearly 1/3 of the total size of Mexico. Treaty of Hidalgo- ended the war

5 The fate of Santa Anna After losing to the U.S. he went into exile but returned again in 1853. Finally he went into exile in 1855 for twenty years before returning a poor, blind and broken man.

6 Benito Juarez, “the reformer”
He ruled from and passed La Reforma. This plan would redistribute land to the poor and increase education in Mexico. He also built railroads, a telegraph system and expanded trade opportunities for Mexico.

7 France invades Mexico Napoleon III plotted with conservatives to take Mexico and establish a French colony in the America’s. In 1862, French forces invaded Mexico and captured it within 18 months. Napoleon put Austrian Archduke Maximilian in power, Juarez escaped. After five years of French rule, Napoleon seeing the great expense of ruling Mexico, withdrew. Juarez was reelected. serving for five years until dying of a heart attack

8 Porfiro Diaz Ruled from 1876-1911 as a caudillo
Democracy was seldom seen in Mexico with Diaz. -He promised Mexico “Liberty, order and progress”. -Mexico developed its railroads, banks and currency. -Rich got rich and poor stayed poor. -Political instability would soon arrive.

9 Mexican Revolution Francisco Madero- An advocate for democracy who called for political reform. Diaz had Madero arrested after he declared his candidacy for president, he was exiled and then called for a rebellion. In 1913, he returned to Mexico after Diaz was defeated in the revolution. -He served two years before resigning after being considered too liberal. -He was later assassinated

10 Pancho Villa A hero to the Mexican population for his role as a Mexican Robin Hood. He raised an army and help take Diaz out of power in 1911 Later he led a raid against the U.S. killing 17 Americans in claiming he was trying to retake Mexico’s lost land. (New Mexico and Texas)

11 Pancho Villa Was pursued heavily by the U.S. but was never caught as he was hidden by Mexican locals. Sound familiar??? -He and Emilano Zapata helped overthrow Mexico’s new president Victoriano Huerta replacing him with Venustianzo Carranza. -Carranza turned against both Villa and Zapata killing Zapata and sending Villa into hiding.

12 Venustiano Carranza Revised a new Mexican constitution in 1917.
The new constitution specified land reforms, state take over of catholic properties, new labor laws and legal rights for women along with equal pay. Carranza did not support the final version of the constitution and was overthrown in 1920 by one of his own generals Alvaro Obregon. Obregon ruled until 1928 when he was assassinated.

13 The PRI The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)- was formed in 1929. This party did not tolerate opposition. The lack of opposition led to a lengthy period of peace and political stability.

14 Mexico Still in need of economic stability today
Political stability is again in question today

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