2 Table of Contents Unit 1: Parts of Speech Unit 2: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence StructureUnit 3: Simple & Progressive VerbsUnit 4: Perfect & Passive VerbsUnit 5: Complex SentencesUnit 6: Overview of City ESOL Program
3 Complex SentencesA complex sentence consists of a dependent clause and an independent clause.Although Beto works full-time, he still finds time to study.I want to go home because I do not feel well.Dependent ClauseIndependent ClauseIndependent ClauseDependent Clause
4 Dependent Clauses There are three types of dependent clauses: Adverb ClausesRelative (or Adjective) ClausesNoun Clauses
5 Caution!We learned about coordinating conjunctions in Unit 2. Coordinating conjunctions join two independent clauses, remember?Subordinating conjunctions, relative pronouns, and connecting words for noun clauses make a clause dependent. A dependent clause cannot live on its own (just like a baby).It must be attached to an independent clause.
6 Adverb ClausesAdverb clauses show a relationship such as contrast, time, reason, and result.They begin with subordinating conjunctions such as:although, when, because, while, since, before, afterExample:Disco Jr. is beautiful although he is missing his two front teeth.
8 Relative ClausesRelative Clauses (also called Adjective Clauses) are used to give more information about a noun.They often begin with a relative pronoun such as:that, who, whose, which, whom
9 Subject vs. Object Consider the following sentence: Disco Jr. is a dog who enjoys a day at the beach.What is the relative clause? What is the noun that it is identifying? What is the subject of the relative clause?Coronado is the beach that Disco Jr. prefers.
10 Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive Consider the following sentence:Tutors who work at City College are great!What is the relative clause? What is the noun that it is identifying?There are two types of relative clauses: restrictive and non-restrictive. Restrictive relative clauses give information that is needed to identify the noun. Tutors is the noun that is being modified. Think of all of the tutors in the world. We need the information “who work at City College” to know which tutors we are talking about. This relative clauses is “restricting” the possibilities.
11 Now consider this sentence: Disco Jr., who generally enjoys a day at the beach, does not like to be buried in the sand.What is the relative clause? What is the noun that it is identifying? Do you need “who generally enjoys a day at the beach” to know who Disco Jr. is? The answer is no. That relative clause is extra information. Therefore, it is surrounded by commas. So relative clauses that contain information needed to identify the noun has no commas, and relative clauses that contain “extra” information have commas.
12 Complete Sentences: Practice Correct or Incorrect? Subject and Verb? Many students have struggled when making the transition from high school to college or university.Being organized essential to success in college.Another key to college success is to keep yourself motivated.Setting goals can help you stay motivated, the most effective goals are specific and well-defined.isT.
13 Seven Common Problems with Sentence Structure A parallel structure has not been used when needed.The subject of a sentence or clause is missing.The subject has been unnecessarily repeated (two subjects).A sentence boundary problem has occurred – either a fragment or a run-on sentence.The verb to be is missing.Words in a sentence are missing.Two clauses or a clause and a phrase have been used that do not fit together grammatically.
14 Sentence Boundaries The cat slept quietly. What is a clause? What do these words mean?IndependentDependentIndependent clause = simple sentenceThe cat slept quietly.Dependent clause = needs an independent clauseSubjectNoun phraseVerb phrase
15 Compound/Complex Sentences A compound complex sentence is… complex and compound simultaneously. It consists of a compound sentence (two or more independent clauses) and one or more dependent clauses. This sentence structure is not likely to be taught at even the higher ESOL levels. Students should focus on mastering compound and complex sentences individually before attempting to combine them.Caution!