Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Total Physical Response (TPR)"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 Total Physical Response (TPR) Textbook:Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press.
2IntroductionA general approach to foreign language instruction which has been named“the Comprehension Approach”In the 1960s and 1970s research gave rise to the hypothesis that language learning should start first with understanding and later proceed to production.
3After the learner internalizes an extensive map of how the target language works, speaking will appear spontaneously.For example, a baby spends many months listening to the people around it long before it ever says a word. No one tells the baby that it must speak. He chooses to speak when it is ready to do so.
4There are several methods being practiced today for foreign language instruction. 1. One such method is Krashen and Terrell’s“Natural Approach”.The teacher helps her students to understandher by using pictures and occasional wordsin the students’ native language.
52. Another method “Comprehension Approach” is Winitz and Reed’s self-instructional program and Winitz’ The Learnables.The students are asked to respond in some way such as pointing each picture to show that they are understand, but they don’t speak.
63. A new method, called the Lexical Approach 3. A new method, called the Lexical Approach. Developed by Michael Lewis. It is less concerned with student production and more concerned that students receive abundant comprehensible input.Students are given exercises and activities which raise their awareness about lexical features of the target language.
74. James Asher’s Total Physical Response (TPR), one method to see how the principles of the Comprehension Approach are put into practice.On Asher’s research, least stressful way to achieve understanding of any target language is to follow directions uttered by the instructor.
8ExperienceThe teacher calls on four students to come to the front of the room. She tells the other students to listen and to watch.In English the teacher says, “Stand up”, “Sit down”. The teacher and the students stand up and sit down together several times according to the teacher’s command; the students say nothing.
9One again the teacher gives the commands. The four students respond to her commands.Stand up. Sit down. They all respond perfectly.Next, the teacher would like one of the studentsto follow her commands alone. One studentsraises his hand and performs the actions theteacher commands.
10Finally, the teacher approaches the other students Finally, the teacher approaches the other students. “Stand up”, she says and the class responds. Even thought they have not done the actions before, the students are able to performaccording to the teacher’s commands. The teacher introduces new commands as she is satisfied with students reactions.As the last step of the lesson, the teacher writes the new commands on the blackboard. Each time she writes a command, she acts it out. The students copy the sentences from the blackboard into the notebooks..
11The class is over. No one except the teacher has spoken a word. However, a few weeks later, oneof students is speaking. The student is directingthe other students and the teacher with thesecommands. They are not saying anything; theyare just following the student’s orders.
12Thinking about the experience-1 Observations1.The teacher gives a command in the target language and performs it with the students.Principles---Meaning in the targetlanguage can often beconveyed through actions.---The target languageshould be presented inchunks, not just word byword.
13Thinking about the experience-2 2. The students say nothing.The students’understanding of thetarget language shouldbe developed beforespeaking.
14Thinking about the experience-3 3.The teacher gives thecommand quite quickly.Students can initiallylearn one part of thelanguage rapidly bymoving their bodies.
15Thinking about the experience-4 4.The teacher sits down and issues commands to the volunteers.The imperative is apowerful linguistic devicethrough which the teachercan direct student behavior.
16Thinking about the experience-5 5.The teacher directsstudents other than thevolunteers.Students can learn throughobserving actions as wellas by performing theactions themselves.
17Thinking about the experience-6 6.The teacher introducesnew commands after sheis satisfied that the firstsix have been mastered.It is very important thatstudents feel successful.Feeling of success and lowanxiety facilitate learning.
18Thinking about the experience-7 7.The teacher changes the order of the commands.Students should not bemade to memorize fixedroutines.
19Thinking about the experience-8 8.When the students make an error, the teacher repeats the command while acting it out.Correction should becarried out in anunobtrusive manner.
20Thinking about the experience-9 9.The teacher gives the students commands they have not heard before.Students must developflexibility in understandingnovel combinations oftarget language chunks.They need to understandmore than the exactsentences used in training.Novelty is also motivating.
21Thinking about the experience-10 10.The teacher says, “jump to the desk.” Everyone laughs.Language learning is moreeffective when it is fun.
22Thinking about the experience-11 11.The teacher writes the new commands on the blackboard.Spoken language should beemphasized over writtenlanguage.
23Thinking about the experience-12 12.A few weeks later, a student who hasn’t spoken before gives commands.Students will begin tospeak when they are ready.
24Thinking about the experience-13 13.A student says, “shake hand with your neighbor.Students are expected tomake errors when theyfirst begin speaking.Teachers should betolerant of them. Work onthe fine details of thelanguage should bepostponed until studentshave become somewhatproficient.
25Reviewing the principles 1.What are the goals of teachers who useTPR?Teachers who use TPR believe in theimportance of having their studentsenjoy their experience in learning tocommunicate in a foreign language.
262.What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students? Initially, the teacher is the director of allstudent behavior. The students are imitatorsof her nonverbal model. At some point(usually after ten to twenty hours ofinstruction), some students will be ready tospeak. At that point there will be a rolereversal with individual students directingthe teacher and the other students.
273.What are some characteristics of the teaching / learning process? First phaseThe instructor issues commands to a fewstudents, then performs the actions withthem.Second phaseThese same students demonstrate thatthey can understand the commands byperforming them alone.
28The teacher next recombines the commands to have students develop flexibility inunderstanding unfamiliar utterances.These commands are often humorous.After learning to respond to some oralcommands, the students learn to read and writethem. Meanwhile they are ready to speak andbecome one who issues the commands.
294. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction 4.What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student student interaction?The teacher interacts with the whole group ofstudents and with individual students.Students perform the actions together. Students can learn by watching each other.As students begin to speak, they issue commands to one another as well as to the teacher.
305.How are the feelings of the students dealt with? TPR was developed to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages.Another way to relieve anxiety is to make language learning as enjoyable as possible.Feeling of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
316.How is language viewed? How is culture viewed? Just as with the acquisition of the nativelanguage, the oral modality is primary.Culture is the lifestyle of people who speakthe language natively.
327. What areas of language are emphasized 7.What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized over other language areas.Understanding the spoken word should precede its production. The spoken language is emphasized over written language.
338.What is the role of the students’ native language? TPR is usually introduced in the student’snative language. After the introduction,rarely would the native language be used.Meaning is made clear through bodymovements.
349.How is evaluation accomplished? Teachers will know immediately whether or notstudents understand by observing their students’actions. Formal evaluations can be conductedsimply by commanding individual students toperform a series of actions. As students becomemore advanced, their performance of skits theyhave created can become the basis for evaluation.
3510.How does the teacher respond to student errors? It is expected that students will make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should be tolerant of them and only correct major errors. Even these should be corrected unobtrusively. As students get more advanced, teachers can “fine tune”---correct more minor errors.
36Reviewing the techniques The major technique, as we saw in the lesson we observed, is the use of commands to direct behavior.Asher acknowledges that, although this technique is powerful, a variety of activities is preferred for maintaining student interest.
37Using commands to direct behavior It should be clear from the class we observedthat the use of commands is the major teachingtechnique of TPR.Asher suggests keeping the pace lively, it isnecessary for a teacher to plan in advancewhich commands she will introduce in a lesson.
38At first, the teacher performs the actions with the students. Later, the teacher directs thestudents alone. The students’ action tell theteacher whether or not the students understand.Asher advises teachers to vary the commands sothat students will connect the actions withlanguage.
39Asher believes it is very important that the students feel successful Asher believes it is very important that the students feel successful. Therefore, the teacher should not introduce new commands too fast. It is recommended that a teacher present three commands at a time. After students feel successful with these, three more can be taught.
40People always ask how much of a language can be taught through TPR. Asher claims that all grammar features can be communicated through imperatives.Example of advanced lesson, one might introduce past tense as follow:
41Teacher: Ingrid, walk to the blackboard. (Ingrid gets up and walks tothe blackboard.)Teacher: Class, if Ingrid walked to the blackboard, stand up.(The class stands up.)
42Teacher: Ingrid, write your name on the blackboard.(Ingrid writes her name on the blackboard.)Teacher: Class, if Ingrid wrote her name on the blackboard, sit down.(The class sits down.)
43Role reversalStudents command their teacher and classmatesto perform some actions. Asher says thatstudents will want to speak after ten to twentyhours of instruction, although some students maytake longer. Students should not be encouragedto speak until they are ready.
44Action sequenceAs the students learn more and more of the targetlanguage, a longer series of connectedcommands can be given.While we did not see a long action sequence inthis very first class, a little later on studentsmight receive the following instructions:
45Take out a pen.Take out a piece of paper.Write a letter. (Imaginary)Fold the letter.Put it in an envelope.Seal the envelope.Write the address on the envelope.Put a stamp on the envelope.Mail the letter.This series of commands is called an actionsequence, or an operation.
46Conclusion Now that we have had a chance to experience a TPR class and to examine itsprinciples and techniques, you should try tothink about how any of this will be of use toyou in our own teaching.
47Ask yourself —1.Would you use the imperative to present the grammatical structures and vocabulary of the target language?2.Do you believe it is possible to teach all grammatical features through the imperative?3.Would you want to adapt any of techniques of TPR to your teaching situation?
48Activity — ACheck your understanding of Total physicalResponse.1.Asher believes that foreign language instruction can and should be modeled on native language acquisition. What are some characteristics of his method that are similar to the way children acquire their native language?
492.One of the principles of TPR is that when student anxiety is low, language learning is enhanced. How does this method lower student anxiety?
50Activity BApply what you have understood about Total Physical Response.1.Although the teacher uses imperatives, she does so in a gentle, pleasant way, the way a parent would usually do with a child.2.A lot of target language structures and vocabulary can be taught through the imperative.3.In the action sequence, the teacher has the students pretend to write and mail a letter. Think of three common activities which could be used in the classroom.