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**EE365 Adv. Digital Circuit Design Clarkson University Lecture #4**

Transistor Level Logic CMOS vs. TTL

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**Topics CMOS Logic Devices Bipolar Logic Devices Lect #4**

Rissacher EE365

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**MOS Transistors Voltage-controlled resistance PMOS NMOS Lect #4**

Rissacher EE365

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Switch Model Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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CMOS Inverter Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Alternate transistor symbols**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS Gate Characteristics**

No DC current flow into MOS gate terminal However gate has capacitance ==> current required for switching (CV2f power) No current in output structure, except during switching Both transistors partially on Power consumption related to frequency Slow input-signal rise times ==> more power Symmetric output structure ==> equally strong drive in LOW and HIGH states Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS Gate Operation Java applet showing CMOS gates visit:**

tech- illustrates gate operation, including power drain during switching Link is on class website Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Pull-up / Pull-down Model**

Typical CMOS gate can be viewed as consisting of two parts pull-up network and pull-down network VDD A Pull-up B C GND output A B C Pull-down Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Pull-up / Pull-down Model**

High level inputs to the PDN cause switches to close If there is a closed switch path thru PDN, then output is low Low level inputs to the PUN cause switches to close If there is a closed switch path thru PUN, then output is high Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Pull-up / Pull-down Model**

A Since hign level signals on the inputs cause the PDN to close switches, we get a Boolean expression for the input which creates a closed path thru PDN A and ( B or C) B C If a closed path exists in PDN, then the output is pulled low. Thus the logic function realized is the complement (inverted) version of the Boolean expression. GND output A B C Pull-down not (A and ( B or C)) Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Pull-up / Pull-down Model**

What happens when the Boolean expression is false? Since there is no path thru PDN, the output could float. In order to make the output high, the PUN must have a path which connects VDD to the output. Observe: take the expression for PDN and use DeMorgans Law to write it in terms of complemented input variables. Complemented variables are true when the input level is low. Thus, this gives exactly the form of the PUN In this case: not A or ( not B and not C) Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS NAND Gates Use 2n transistors for n-input gate Lect #4**

Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS NAND -- switch model**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS NAND -- more inputs (3)**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS – non-inverting buffer**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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CMOS – 2-input AND gate Note the number of transistors compared to NAND (6 vs. 4) Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**In-Class Practice Problem**

Design a CMOS NOR circuit Hint: Like NAND shown earlier, NOR circuits have 2n transistors for n-input gate (this one has 4) Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS NOR Gates Like NAND -- 2n transistors for n-input gate Lect #4**

Rissacher EE365

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NAND vs. NOR NMOS has lower “on” resistance than PMOS (important when multiple transistors are in series) NAND NOR Result: NAND gates are preferred in CMOS due to speed Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Cascade Structure for Large Inputs**

8-input CMOS NAND Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Complex Logic Functions**

CMOS AND-OR-INVERT gate Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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Tri-State We lied - “binary” outputs have more than two values Some gates are designed to have a third value - a high impedance Effectively disconnects the gate output from the circuit Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Tri-State Application**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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Open Drain Device without the internal active pull-up network on the output Why ? Allows for two or more outputs to be connected together Produces a “wired” AND function Requires a pull-up resistor Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Open Drain Application**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**CMOS Families 4000 series - mostly obsolete HC**

HCT (input levels compatible with TTL) AC ACT (input levels compatible with TTL) FCT and FCT-T (both TTL compatible) Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Bipolar Logic Families**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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TTL Digital Circuits Designed using “transistor-transistor logic” (remember EE341 ?) npn bipolar junction transistors Transistors operate in either cut-off mode no base current => no collector current saturated mode base current pulls VCE to ~ 0.2 v Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**A Simplified TTL NAND Gate**

Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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Schottky Transistors Addition of Schottky diodes between base and collector prevent saturation Schottky diode has lower forward bias voltage drop (0.25 v). Resulting design is called a Schottky transistor Speeds switching time by reducing charge storage in saturation Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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TTL NAND Gate Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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Special TTL outputs Standard output stage is called “totem pole” output Tri-state outputs Open collector (or CMOS open drain) requires external pull-up resistor allows wired-AND function Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**TTL differences from CMOS**

Asymmetric input and output characteristics. Inputs source significant current in the LOW state, leakage current in the HIGH state. Output can handle much more current in the LOW state (saturated transistor). Output can source only limited current in the HIGH state (resistor plus partially-on transistor). TTL has difficulty driving “pure” CMOS inputs because VOH = 2.4 V (except “T” CMOS). Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**TTL Families 7400 series (5400 “mil spec”) 74 S - Schottky**

74 LS - low power Schottky 74 AS - advanced Schottky 74 ALS - advanced low power Schottky 74 F - Fast TTL Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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TI’s Logic Products 9/10/98 Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Comparison of Signal Levels**

CMOS (HC, AC) CMOS (HCT, ACT) TTL (S, LS, AL, ALS, F) 0 v 5 v 5 v 5 v VOH 4.4 v VIH 3.5 v VOH 2.4 v VOH 2.4 v VIH 2.0 v VIH 2.0 v VIL 1.5 v 0.8 v 0.8 v VIL VIL VOL 0.5 v 0.4 v 0.4 v VOL VOL 0 v 0 v Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Another Practice Problem**

Attempt to draw a truth table for the following circuit. Hint: List each transistor in the truth table and show whether it is on of off for each input combination A B C D Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Another Practice Problem**

Z H L OR-AND-INVERT Lect #4 Rissacher EE365

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**Next Classes Memorial Day – NO CLASS ! Tues. - Help Day for Project #**

Wed. – Class Postponed Thur. - Electrical Behavior, Power & Timing

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