Presentation on theme: "KI 2: WHERE ARE PEOPLE DISTRIBUTED WITHIN URBAN AREAS? CH. 13—URBAN PATTERNS."— Presentation transcript:
KI 2: WHERE ARE PEOPLE DISTRIBUTED WITHIN URBAN AREAS? CH. 13—URBAN PATTERNS
MODELS OF URBAN STRUCTURE People concentrate in particular areas in urban settlements depending on their social characteristics E.W. Burgess (1923)—Concentric Zone Model City grows outward from central area in series of rings Size of rings will vary from city to city, but order and type of ring will be same Use page 411 to identify the 5 rings in your notes
Concentric Zone Model
MODELS OF URBAN STRUCTURE Sector Model developed in 1939 by Homer Hoyt City develops in a series of sectors, not rings
MODELS OF URBAN STRUCTURE Multiple nuclei model developed in 1945 by C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman City is complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve (ie. Ports, neighborhoods, universities, airports)
GEOGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS OF THE MODELS 3 models help us understand where people with different social characteristics tend to live within an urban area Used to explain why certain types of people live in particular places Urban areas in U.S. are divided into census tracts by U.S. Census Bureau—each tract contains roughly 5,000 residents Allows for organized social area analysis— comparing distributions of characteristics to create an overall picture of where various types of people live
Example of concentric zone model in Dallas, the distribution of home owners. The % of households that own their home is greater in the outer rings of the city.
Example of sector model in Dallas, the distribution of high-income households. The median household income is the highest in a sector to the north.
Example of multiple nuclei model in Dallas, the distribution of minorities. African Americans and Hispanics occupy nodes to the south and west of downtown.
APPLYING MODELS OUTSIDE OF NORTH AMERICA American urban areas differ from those elsewhere in world—differences do not invalidate the models European Cities Wealthy Europeans still live in the inner rings of upper class sector (opposite of U.S.) See page 415 in textbook
LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Similar to Europe, poor are accommodated in suburbs and wealthy live near city centers European colonial influence created this pattern in most LDCs Pre-colonial cities—built around religious structures—wealthy families located near that center With rural to urban migration and high NIRs, LDCs have seen a growth of squatter settlements Have few services (no $$ for them) See page 419 in textbook