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How are Cities Organized?

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Presentation on theme: "How are Cities Organized?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How are Cities Organized?
Key Question: How are Cities Organized?

2 Zones of the City Central business district (CBD)
Central City (the CBD + older housing zones) Suburb (outlying, functionally uniform zone outside of the central city)


4 Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery
Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model) African City (de Blij model) Southeast Asian City (McGee model)

5 Latin American City (Griffin-Ford Model)

6 Latin American model Generalized scheme both sensitive to local cultures and international forces, both Western and non-Western In contrast to today’s cities in the U.S., the CBDs of Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, and increasingly specialized A reliance on public transit that serves the central city Existence of a large and relatively affluent population closest to CBD

7 The African City (de Blij Model)

8 Southeast Asian City (McGee model)

9 Middle East: Mumbai, India

10 Modeling the North American City
Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess) Sector model (Homer Hoyt) Multiple Nuclei Model (Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)

11 Three Classical Models of Urban Structure

12 Concentric zone model Developed in 1925 by Ernest W. Burgess
A model with five zones.

13 Burgess’s Concentric Ring

14 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 1
The central business district (CBD) Zone 2 Characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land use --Often includes slums and skid rows Zone 3 The “workingmen’s quarters” Zone 4 Middle class area of “better housing” Zone 5 Consists of higher-income families

15 Another Example Of Concentric

16 Sector model Homer Hoyt, an economist, presented his sector model in 1939 Because these areas were reinforced by transportation routes, the pattern of their development was one of sectors or wedges

17 Hoyt’s Sector Model

18 Modeling Cities: sector model
Stresses the importance of transportation corridors. Sees growth of various urban activities as expanding along roads, rivers, or train routes.

19 Multiple nuclei model Suggested by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in 1945 Maintained a city developed with equal intensity around various points The CBD was not the sole generator of change

20 Ullman’s Multi Nuclei

21 Modeling Cities: multiple-nuclei
Stresses the importance of multiple modes of activity, not a single CBD. Ports, airports, universities attract certain uses while repelling others. Modeling Cities: multiple-nuclei

22 Changes in Cities in the U.S.
U.S. population has been moving out of the city centers to the suburbs: suburbanization and counterurbanization Developed Countries: suburbanization wealthy move to suburbs automobiles and roads; ‘American Dream’ better services counterurbanization idyllic settings cost of land for retirement slow pace, yet high tech connections to services and markets U.S. intraregional migration during 1990s.

23 New Urbanism Development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs. some are concerned over privatization of public spaces some are concerned that they do nothing to bread down the social conditions that create social ills of the cities some believe they work against urban sprawl

24 The new urban landscape
Office parks (many offices locate together) Shopping Malls Master Planned Communities Festival Settings “Militarized Space (no benches..keep out homeless) Decline Public Space (Skyway in cities) (malls vs stores)

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