6 Latin American modelGeneralized scheme both sensitive to local cultures and international forces, both Western and non-WesternIn contrast to today’s cities in the U.S., the CBDs of Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, and increasingly specializedA reliance on public transit that serves the central cityExistence of a large and relatively affluent population closest to CBD
14 Concentric zone model A model with five zones. Zone 1 The central business district (CBD)Zone 2Characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land use --Often includes slums and skid rowsZone 3The “workingmen’s quarters”Zone 4Middle class area of “better housing”Zone 5Consists of higher-income families
21 Modeling Cities: multiple-nuclei Stresses the importance of multiple modes of activity, not a single CBD. Ports, airports, universities attract certain uses while repelling others.Modeling Cities: multiple-nuclei
22 Changes in Cities in the U.S. U.S. population has been moving out of the city centers to the suburbs: suburbanization and counterurbanizationDeveloped Countries: suburbanizationwealthy move to suburbsautomobiles and roads; ‘American Dream’better servicescounterurbanizationidyllic settingscost of land for retirementslow pace, yet high tech connections to services and marketsU.S. intraregional migration during 1990s.
23 New UrbanismDevelopment, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.some are concerned over privatization of public spacessome are concerned that they do nothing to bread down the social conditions that create social ills of the citiessome believe they work against urban sprawl
24 The new urban landscape Office parks (many offices locate together)Shopping MallsMaster Planned CommunitiesFestival Settings“Militarized Space (no benches..keep out homeless)Decline Public Space (Skyway in cities) (malls vs stores)