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Components important to the teaching of reading

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Presentation on theme: "Components important to the teaching of reading"— Presentation transcript:

1 Components important to the teaching of reading
Automatic word recognition (fluency) comprehension of text development of a love of literature and a desire to read

2 The Connection Between Decoding and Comprehension
Phonics ~ Decoding ~ Word Recognition ~ Reading Fluency ~ Automaticity ~ Reading Comprehension

3 Graphophonic Cues: Involve a reader’s knowledge of sound- spelling relationships. Phonics instruction helps children to use these cues

4 Syntactic Cues: Involve a reader’s knowledge of the grammar or structure of language. This knowledge helps the reader to predict what type of word might appear in a certain place in a sentence. This cueing system also involves an understanding of word order and the use of function words, such as the and an.

5 Semantic Cues Involve a reader’s knowledge of the world. World knowledge helps the reader use cues in the text to discover the meaning of a word that fits into a specific place in a particular sentence. Readers use their semantic knowledge to determine whether a text makes sense.

6 10 Important Research Findings About Phonics
phonics instruction can help all children learn to read Do it early Keep it simple Except in cases of diagnosed individual need, complete instruction by the end of second grade. explicit phonics instruction is more beneficial than implicit instruction

7 Continued most poor readers have weak phonics skills and a strategy imbalance phonics knowledge has a powerful effect on decoding ability Words can be stored in working memory for only a short period of time. Slow decoding can result is some words “decaying” before a meaningful chunk of text can be processed. Devoting large amounts of mental energy to decoding leaves less mental energy for developing comprehension.

8 good decoders rely less on context clues than poor decoders
the reading process relies on a reader’s attention to each letter in a word phonemic awareness is necessary for phonics instruction to be effective phonics instruction improves spelling ability

9 Continued a teacher’s knowledge of phonics affects his or her ability of teach phonics it is possible to overdo phonics instruction

10 Stages of Reading Intermediate Reader (Grades 3 to 8)
Emergent Reader (Pre-K to middle of 1) Emergent Beginning Reader (K to middle of 2) Letter Name-Alphabetic Transitional Reader (Grade 1 to middle of 4) Within Word Patter Intermediate Reader (Grades 3 to 8) Syllables and Affixes Advanced Reader (Grades 5 to 12) Derivational Relations

11 Alphabet Recognition Phonemic Awareness
knowing the names of the letters and the sounds they represent Phonemic Awareness understanding that a word is made up of sounds and the ability to manipulate sounds in spoken words

12 Phonemic Awareness Is the understanding or insight that a word is made up of a series of discrete sounds. Each of these sounds is called a phoneme. This awareness includes the ability to pick out and manipulate sounds in spoken words.

13 Importance of phonemic awareness
It is needed in order to associate sounds with letters and manipulate sounds to blend words or segment words. Phonemic awareness training provides the foundation on which phonics instruction is built Children must be able to segment and auditorily discriminate /s/ in the words sit, sand, and sock before it makes sense to them that the letter s stands for this sound in these written words “Phonemic awareness is both a prerequisite for and a consequence of learning to read.” (Yopp, 19912)

14 Keep in mind: don’t stress written words or letters
keep the tone fun and informal monitor each child’s progress model, model, model keep assessing phonemic awareness provide lots and lots of language experiences.

15 The Concepts of Print Knowing the difference between words and non-words know that print is print no matter what form it appears in. know that print can appear by itself or with pictures understand that print corresponds to speech word for word understand the purpose of the empty space between words understand that words are read from left to right on a page understand that lines of text are read from top to bottom on a page can identify the front of a book and a page in it

16 The Language of Instruction
tracking print can help children understand the concept of “word” using sentence strips and pocket charts to have children match sentences with a give text can develop sense of “sentence” certain activities, especially multisensory ones, can help children understand the concept of “beginning, middle, and end.”

17 Sensible Sequencing teach children letter names first
put a new spin on a classic song teach the shapes and sounds of letters tailor your letter lessons to students’ needs help children to see differences and similarities provide support for children having difficulty discriminating letters provide letter writing practice (copying and tracing are okay too) use key words and pictures when introducing sound-spelling relationships multisensory activities read many alphabet books

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