2Literacy begins at birth. Prior to schooling literacy is made possible by providing children with a literacy-rich environment in which they are able to participate in literacy activities and interact with item such as books, paper, markers, etc.
3Literacy experiences prior to schooling develop: Interest in booksInterest in environmental printEnjoyment in reading with an adultAbility to describe pictures in booksAbility to label picturesBeginning stages of writing
4The Four Stages of Literacy During the Early Years of Schooling Emergent ( Pre-School – 1st )Early ( 1st – 2nd )Early Fluent ( 2nd – 3rd )Fluent ( 3rd - 4th )
5Characteristics of Emergent Readers and Writers: Understand that written words have meaningBegin to match spoken words with the printPretend to read by turning pages of books andinventing stories using the picturesIdentify some letters and some letter sound associationsRecognize some words and letters in books or in theirenvironmentInconsistent with the concepts of word and letterWrite some lettersWrite in scribbles or strings of random lettersRead their writing, but may not be able to re-read it laterMatch some words to print
6Experiences for Emergent Readers and Writers: Seeing reading and writing modeled by adultsReading predictable books with picturesExperimentation with writingBuild letter and sound recognitionRhyming and word playOral and written language activities
7Characteristics of Early Readers: Understand that reading needs to make senseAttentive to printIdentify most letters by nameAble to use some letter/sound knowledge to decode some wordsAware of some punctuation and capitalization, but may not use them consistently in their writing and readingRecognize some sight wordsUse pictures, story patterns, context, and phonics to read
8Characteristics of Early Writers: Use spaces between words, inconsistentlySpell using some sound/letter associationsAble to re-read own writing most of the timeMay mix upper and lower case letters and may reverse some letters
9Experiences for Early Readers/Writers: Exposure to shared and guided readingModeling and teaching of strategies to figure out words and make sense of printGames and activities to increase sight word recognitionGames and activities to build phonemic awarenessEncouragement to write using invented spellingLanguage experience activitiesDiscussing and retelling stories read aloud
10Characteristics of Early Fluent/Fluent Readers: Recognize many words in and out of contextApply phonics and other strategies to figure out new wordsMonitor their reading for meaning and self correctionRead with increased fluency, accuracy, and expression
11Early Fluent/Fluent Writers: Use drafting, revising and editing in their writingExpress their ideas more elaboratelyUse more conventional spellingIncrease their use of punctuation
12Experiences for Early Fluent/Fluent Readers/Writers: Opportunity to read and discuss challenging textsPractice reading for meaning using comprehension strategiesReading to build accuracy, fluency, and expressionSilent readingContinue writing using strategies for revision and editingDiscussing a variety of literacy types
13At this point..Literacy skills move from learning to read and write to learning from reading and writing.