Presentation on theme: "What is Word Study? PD Presentation: Union 61 Revised ELA guide Supplement 2007-08 (and beyond)"— Presentation transcript:
What is Word Study? PD Presentation: Union 61 Revised ELA guide Supplement 2007-08 (and beyond)
What IS Word Study ? Word Study is an essential component of the core curriculum in ELA.
ELA Core Curriculum Independent reading, fluency practice and self-selected reading. Students practicing written expression independently Texts used for reading instruction increase in difficulty as they expand students’ background knowledge and vocabulary.
ELA Core Curriculum (continued) There is direct and explicit teaching of strategies and skills. Guided reading so that students can apply strategies/skills. Teacher-modeled writing with spelling and grammar included.
Structural Analysis Using Context Sound/Symbol Relationships Vocabulary Development Reference Tools
Standard 7: Reading connecting Sound /Symbol Standard 5 : Structure & Origins of English Standard 22: Standard English Conventions Word Study is Standards-Based Standard 19: Writing Standard 4: Vocabulary
Word Study Focuses on student recognition of language patterns Overlaps language, composition and reading strands of core curriculum Integrates inquiry into vocabulary and spelling instruction Is based on a developmental continuum and scaffolding of skills and concepts
Word study builds on and emphasizes for students the relationship that exists between reading and writing. If one considers Bloom’s taxonomy, students go beyond literal understanding or knowledge into comparison, analysis, generalization and synthesis through word study.
Word Sorts, Using Context Sorting words and manipulating letters and syllables to make words, deriving meaning from context and morphemic clues are some of the strategies used in word study as well as desired outcomes for student learning.
Effective Effective Readers Spellers Use 5 Cueing Systems Phonics (sound/symbols)Phonics (sound/symbols) Structural Analysis- MorphologyStructural Analysis- Morphology Visual configurationVisual configuration Contextual analysis including syntax, pictures and phrasingContextual analysis including syntax, pictures and phrasing Reference: dictionary, expertReference: dictionary, expert use a variety of spelling strategies to spell and learn new words automatically recall high- frequency words, topic and signal words continually build their vocabulary understand the English orthographic system understand and apply spelling generalizations self monitor and generate alternative spellings for unknown words.
Developing Vocabulary Effective direct instruction in vocabulary involves: Descriptions rather than just definitions Use of linguistic and non-linguistic representations Scaffolding so that word meanings are shaped gradually Teaching and using word parts (roots, suffixes, prefixes, inflected endings)
Vocabulary Development Different types of instruction for different types of words Students interacting with one another about the words they are learning Use of games, word sorts, graphic organizers and webs for over-learning Focus on terms that are important to specific content areas
The approach to vocabulary instruction that researchers have identified as being the most successful in providing students with fuller, richer word knowledge and increasing their reading comprehension, is an eclectic, systematic one that contains three distinct elements: integration, repetition, and meaningful use.
Sound-Symbol Relationships As a student’s awareness of the relationship between sounds and symbols develops, they go through three stages: Alphabet Pattern Meaning
The goal of word study is that student reach the most advanced stage of skill with sound/symbol relationships. In this stage, students have an understanding of and use derivational patterns.
Using Context Text book writers usually know when they must use a word that will be new to their student readers. So they often include other words or phrases to help with the understanding of the new word. These words or phrases are referred to as context clues.
Contextual Clues Readers use context to make logical guesses about the meanings of many words. In addition, students can use context clues to define idiomatic expressions. As writers, students include context clues to demonstrate their understanding of vocabulary.
Types of Context Clues 1. Examples 2. Synonyms and Definitions 3. Antonyms and Contrasts 4. Experience or Sense of the Sentence 5. Part of speech/Syntax
Structural Analysis Using knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, plurals, and compound words to decode and understand words Using knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, plurals, and compound words to spell words correctly
Research indicates that morphemic analysis helps students recognize affixes and roots, learn their meanings, and apply this knowledge to learn the meaning of new words. (ROOTing out Meaning) When you teach a word, also gradually teach its derivative forms. When you teach an affix, introduce it on words that carry its most common meaning and later present other meanings.
When you teach a word that has meaningful parts, deconstruct and reconstruct the word with our student in a way that points out the meaning of each part. Teach the use of strategies that help students to internalize patterns or rules and apply them in many different ways. By doing so, students focus on the exceptions as well as the patterns and rules.
Patterns & Generalizations Regarding spelling, reflective strategies encourage students to think about the types of errors they make and of ways to reverse those errors. Deductive strategies encourage students to figure out the rules that make words work and transfer those rules to new words. Word Study promotes the use of both deductive and reflective strategies.
Using Reference Tools Dictionary Thesaurus Internet Kurzweil (speech to text, text to speech software)
Use of reference tools relies on specific skills such as Alphabetical order Guide words Sound spelling/symbols All of the above are learned behaviors.
Tools for Teachers Appendix: Definitions, examples, explanations Developmental Continuum Specific Learning Activities Resource Lists Graphic Organizer templates
Tools for Teachers, continued. Summary Sheet for each grade Student learning outcome by area Essential concepts/terms CIA Materials & Resources White Space
Tools for Teachers, continued. Professional Development Pilot implementation Grade-Alikes District PD day Courses & Institutes