Presentation on theme: "Developing Active Readers Everyday D.A.R.E"— Presentation transcript:
1 Developing Active Readers Everyday D.A.R.E Ultimate goal for our students, to constantly evaluate whether the text and their reading of it is meeting their needs. (Making sense to them)Passive ReaderActive Reader
2 What’s wrong with this picture? Explicit and systematic teaching of necessary skills.Bake this cake!For those Master chef followers, me being one of them, I thought this to be a good analogy.Opportunities to practise skills learnt.
3 Language AcquisitionLanguage is acquired naturally, we will communicate in the language or languages we are exposed to. If you grow up in a home where Spanish is spoken, guess what, you will speak Spanish. This occurs naturally.Reading is not naturally acquired, you will not learn the skills needed to read by being exposed to books (although vitally important), these skills need to be taught in an explicit and systematic manner.My first language was Spanish.
4 Reading is the ability to construct meaning from written text.
5 How Do Children Learn to Read? Children must develop the following skills;Decoding Skills - Written symbols are converted into words.Comprehension Skills - Understanding the meaning of the words.Reading is a message getting, problem solving activity.K-3 learning to read, 3-6 reading to learn.These skills need to be set in stone, entrenched.
6 Decoding Skills There are two distinct parts to decoding. Part 1 involves spoken language (auditory skills and strategies), and Part 2 involves written language (visual skills and strategies).These parts must come together in order to read successfully.Coming across many of our students that are struggling with auditory processing, they do not understand what is being said and asked of them
7 Spoken Language (auditory) Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, separate and manipulate the sounds in spoken words, and the understanding that spoken words are made up of sequences of speech sounds.A student needs to be explicitly taught that;speech is a group of words strung togetherthat this group of words can then be broken down into separate, individual wordsthese individual words can be broken down even further into separate sounds
8 Phonemic Awareness The cat climbed the tree. The cat climbed the tree sentence levelThe cat climbed the tree.word levelThecatclimbedthetree.sound leveltree
9 Why is Phonemic Awareness Important? It is the most powerful predictor of reading acquisition. If a student has poor phonemic awareness, this will ultimately affect their reading ability and comprehension.Students are only able to store a specific amount of words in their memory as sight words. If they are unable to recognise that spoken words can be separated into sounds there will come a time when their ability to tackle unknown words becomes an impossibility.A student with poor phonemic awareness has to spend a lot of time predicting what the next word is going to be. This means that they are unable to concentrate on comprehension when they are reading.Children with Dyslexia, receptive language deficits, require daily instruction
10 How to Develop Phonemic Awareness A successful phonemic awareness program is explicit, systematic and multi-sensory.The following learning experiences will develop phonemic awareness skills. These learning experiences are sensitising students to the fact that words come apart.rhyming words - being able to tell that two words rhymecounting words in a sentencesegmenting and blending syllablessegmenting and blending onset and rime (bl-ack, fl-at, dr-ink)counting phonemes (sounds) in wordssegmenting and blending phonemes (sounds)substitution of soundsDeveloping the awareness that words come apart
11 Written Language (visual) Phonics Phonics involves connections between printed letters and speech sounds.Students are explicitly and systematically taught that sounds correspond to letters, and they now have a strategy for decoding unfamiliar words.Students are not only articulating the sounds but they are matching the sounds to symbols.
12 This is the transition from an auditory strategy to a visual strategy. Teaching PhonicsThis is the transition from an auditory strategy to a visual strategy.counting words in a sentencesegmenting and blending syllablessegmenting and blending onset and rime(bl-ack, fl-at, dr-ink)counting phonemes in wordssegmenting and blending phonemessubstitution of sounds
13 Learning is enhanced by the use of multi-sensory activities.
15 The written word has the same number and sequence of sounds as the spoken word, and letters represent these sounds.
16 Sight Words (visual strategy) These are words that appear most frequently in words, they do not conform to phonic rules and they need to be memorised as a visual chunk.Some following words are examples of sight words;said do was of allStrategies have the students say the letter names, say the word and visualise
17 Comprehension SkillsFluency - Reading fluency is the ability to read a text smoothly, clearly, and at an appropriate pace. The goal is to comprehend what is being read.Vocabulary - This refers to an understanding of the meaning of words being read. Poor vocabulary knowledge leads to poor comprehension. It is critical to develop a broad vocabulary.Comprehension - It is important to make sense of words in context. It is simply not enough to know the meaning of the word, it is necessary to understand its meaning in relation to the words around it.Vocab - Word clines, synonyms, antonymsSchool, different meanings in different contexts
18 The Four Sources of Information (applying decoding and comprehension skills) In learning to read, students must learn to use and integrate four sources of information (processing systems).The semantic (word meaning) processing system.The reader asks, does this make sense?The syntactic (grammar) processing system.The reader asks, Does this sound right?The graphological (written language) and phonological (sounding out) processing systems.The reader checks, do the sounds I want to say match the words on the page?Going back to students constantly evaluating wether the text and their reading of it is meeting their needs, making sense. You want them to monitor their reading to be active readers need to be explicitly taught the strategies in order to do this
19 All four sources of information are explicitly and systematically taught and then practised.The reader has to access and integrate all sources of information fluently and continuously as they read.When faced with an unfamiliar word, the reader attempts to problem solve by asking....Does this make sense? (Meaning)Does it sound right? (Grammar)Do the sounds I want to say match the words on the page?(Phonemic awareness and Phonics)
20 Reading to a child What does it look like? Top TipsIt is very important to pre-read the book; this gives you a good understanding of the text, and allows you to identify any difficult words. This also directs your questioning.When asking questions, remember to guide your child in the right direction, don't give them the answers.Questions regarding prior knowledge, predictions model this
21 More Top Tips! Good readers activate prior knowledge before reading. When you read to a child you are modelling good reading strategies.Use the think – aloud approach.Model the problem solving, the cognitive processes involved be explicit with what you are doing
22 Before Reading the Book Discuss the following; title, author, illustration on the cover.Scan through the book together, discussing the pictures and making predictions. Ask questions.Have your child make predictions about the book, and ask why?Encouraging inferences
23 During ReadingGive your child the opportunity to draw on their own experiences that relate to the experiences found in the book. For example, have you even moved to a new home? Do you remember what that was like?Make predictionsAsk the who, what, when, where and why questions.Identify and talk about difficult words.Ask for a summary of the plot.Sequence the events in the story.What are the main ideas?Use the Pause, Prompt, Praise strategy. When your child comes to an unknown word allow them a few seconds to work it out, if they still do not know the word provide them with an explicit prompt, such as what letter does the word begin with? If they still do not know the word, give it to them and show them a way of working it out. Always praise them for taking a risk and having a go.
24 After Reading Summarise the plot. Retell the events in the books in the correct order.Review and evaluate the predictions made prior to reading the book.Ask your child how they felt about the book. Did they enjoy it? Why? Why not?Re-read the book to further develop expression, fluency, comprehension and most importantly for enjoyment.
25 Pause, Prompt and Praise (P.P.P) use this strategy when the child is reading an unknown worduse at instructional level ( % correct)allow a pause for at least 5 secondsencourage the child to read to the end of the sentencegive the child an explicit promptpraise the child for having a go
26 Prompts- How to Solve a Problem Meaning(What Makes Sense)Grammar(How Sentences Work)About Print(Phonics)Look at the picture.Can you see something in the picture which starts like that?Try that again and think what would make sense.Try that again and think about what is happening in the story.What would you say there?What is happening in the story?Does that make sense?What else could you try?Could it be....?How would you say it?Try that again and think how you would say it?Listen to your voice.Does that sound right?Do you know a word that starts with those letters?Do you know another word like that?Do you know a word which ends with those letters?Can you see a part that you know?Can you see a little word in that word?Can you see something that you know from somewhere else?
27 Prompts-How to Check on Your Reading Meaning(What Makes Sense)Grammar(How Sentences Work)About Print(Phonics)Did that make sense?You said....did that make sense?You said....does that sound right?Is that how you say it?Can we say it that way?Did that sound right?You said...does that look right?It could be...that made sense..., but look at...Check to see if what you read looks right.That was a good try...it makes sense, but what would you see at the beginning of...?You make a mistake on this line...see if you can find it?
28 Why Re - read a Book?Re-reading a book has a purpose, it increases fluency, reinforces new sight words, improves comprehension and expression.When re-reading;encourage and model fluencyencourage and model expression, this can be exaggeratedensure the reader is attending to punctuationask new questionspraise honestly and explicitly. I liked the way you used your talking voice.smile
29 I am a successful reader because I.... am able to decode unknown words using auditory (phonemic awareness) and visual strategies (phonics)read fluentlyunderstand the vocabularycomprehend what I am readingactively and constantly monitor my reading