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Emergent Literacy, Concepts of Print, and Stages of Reading & Writing.

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Presentation on theme: "Emergent Literacy, Concepts of Print, and Stages of Reading & Writing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergent Literacy, Concepts of Print, and Stages of Reading & Writing

2 Objectives Identify and assess emergent literacy skills, including concepts of print Differentiate between qualities of emergent, beginning, and fluent readers and writers See connections between early literacy skills, effective teaching practices, and Common Core Expectations


4 Quick-write… Opportunities for natural language development in an early literacy classroom – list as many as you can in the next 90 seconds…


6 Hart & Risley (1995)

7 Biemiller (2001)


9 Emergent Readers Quick Write: Write as many emergent reading skills as you can think of in 2 minutes. Watch the videos: What does each reader understand about reading and books?

10 Emergent Reading Skills Satya – 6 mos. Satya: Cam: Cam – 20 mos.

11 Hannah What does Hannah know about print and how it works? Hannah knows: Evidence:

12 Concepts About Print 1.Marie Clay’s term for what emergent readers need to understand about how printed language works and represents language. Its basic components include: Print carries a message (even if “pretend reading”) Books are organized, with a cover, title, and author Directionality: Reading flows in a particular and consistent direction, left to right and top to bottom. Printed language consists of letters, words, and sentences (gradually learn to distinguish between) One-to-one matching: More experienced readers begin to recognize matching or upper and lower case letters Concepts About Words > Concepts About Letters

13 Hannah What does Hannah know about print and how it works? Hannah knows… Print has meaning There is meaning in the pictures Where the cover is and how to open a book Title and author Directionality Print should sound interesting Evidence… Points to the print Points to the pictures rather than the words Points to things from left to right She uses good and appropriate expression (fluency)

14 Emergent Reading Concepts About Print (book orientation, directionality, print = meaning & purpose) Concepts of Word (things > label objects > combine to tell stories > hold concept of word in their mind) Concepts of Alphabet (letter name, formation, special features, direction, isolated & combined sound)

15 Stop and Think…. What’s the difference between emergent literacy and traditional definitions of reading readiness?

16 Connecting Speech to Print Some: make the connection automatically through rich and frequent exposure to oral language Most: benefit from explicit instruction in that essential relationship Few: will not develop the understanding unless they have explicit, direct instruction, plus many opportunities for repetition to become proficient readers

17 How will you know which of your students has mastered concepts about print and which have not? See your handout: Assessing Print Understanding –Let’s Try It Out Concepts About Print

18 Concepts of Print in the Common Core Standards

19 Reviewing Reading Guide #1


21 The Big 5 (National Reading Panel Report, 2000) Phonemic Awareness (manipulating sounds) Phonics (relationship between sounds and visual letters) Fluency (speed and accuracy) Vocabulary (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) Text Comprehension (active and purposeful meaning making) Developmental OR balanced/comprehensive??? ALL FIVE areas should be taught at every grade level

22 Five Essential Areas of Reading Instruction REFER TO YOUR READING GUIDE #1 Phonemic Awareness (3 levels – 9 skills) Phonics (systematic & explicit) Fluency (accuracy, automaticity, prosody) Vocabulary (everyday interactions and explicit instruction) Comprehension (M&MDAVIS)

23 Let’s take a break…

24 Effective teachers… Questions you have? 1.Understand how children learn (student-centered approaches that appreciate social and cognitive development) 2.Support children’s use of multiple cueing systems (sound, meaning, structure, visual, social) I see the dog > I see the puppy. I see the dog > I see the dish. I see the dog > I seven the dog. 3.Create a community of learners (opportunity, responsibility, risks, and choices) Tompkins Chapter 1

25 Effective teachers… 4. Adopt a balanced approach to literacy instruction Balance reading and writing (oral, reading, vocabulary, comprehension, phonics, spelling, content-area study) Balance ways of teaching Flexibly meet the needs of students Balanced vs. comprehensive 5. Scaffold children’s reading and writing (based on their development) 6. Use a combination of modeled > shared > interactive > independent activities Gradual release of responsibility…. Tompkins Chapter 1

26 Effective Teachers… Gradually Release Responsibility MODELEDSHAREDINTERACTIVEINDEPENDENT I DO WE DO YOU DO

27 Effective teachers… 7. Use literature in their instruction 8. Organize literacy instruction in one of four ways (a) Basal (b) literature focused (c) literature circles (d) reading & writing workshop 9. Connect instruction and assessment (identify, monitor, assess, analyze, adjust) 10. Become partners with parents. Tompkins Chapter 1

28 Seeing Connections (and Differences) between Literacy Stages in RI Policy Manual and Tompkins Textbook

29 Stages of Reading Development (RI Policy) Emergent Reader - preschool; “reading”; environmental print Beginning Reader - understanding of the alphabet and words (concepts of print) Transitional Reader - recognizing and manipulating within word differences Intermediate Reader - Fluency and “problem-solving” about the meaning Advanced Reader - Reading to learn TOMPKINS: Emergent > Beginning > Fluent (pgs ) FLUENT READER (Tompkins)

30 Linking Stages of Reading and Writing Development (Tompkins pp ) Emergent Writer – writing emerges from drawings; directionality, name, 5-20 words Beginning Writer – sentences and upper/lowercase; spell phonetically, words Fluent Writer – uses writing process; paragraphs, vocabulary, vowel patterns and word endings, punctuation EMERGENT READER BEGINNING READER FLUENT READER

31 ACTIVITY: Detecting Stages of Reading and Writing Development Work with your group How do you know the child is at that stage? How does the teacher foster progress toward the next stage? (materials/texts, opportunities, tasks)

32 Homework Tompkins Ch. 5: Phonemic Awareness Yopp & Yopp: PA Activities Beck: Keywords to PA & Phonics WTW Chapter 1 (Word Study) and 4 (Emergent Stage of Spelling) –Optional reading guide –See outline on next slide

33 Stages of Spelling Development I. Emergent spelling II. Letter Name-Alphabetic Stage –Early letter name-alphabetic spelling –Middle to late letter name-alphabetic III. Within-word pattern Spelling IV. Syllables and affixes Spelling V. Derivational Relations Spelling (meaning) RI POLICY: Precommunicative Semiphonetic Phonetic Transitional Conventional

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