Presentation on theme: "Emergent Literacy, Concepts of Print, and Stages of Reading & Writing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Emergent Literacy, Concepts of Print, and Stages of Reading & Writing
2 ObjectivesIdentify and assess emergent literacy skills, including concepts of printDifferentiate between qualities of emergent, beginning, and fluent readers and writersSee connections between early literacy skills, effective teaching practices, and Common Core Expectations
4 Quick-write…Opportunities for natural language development in an early literacy classroom – list as many as you can in the next 90 seconds…Then quickly review the examples on the next slide (remind them this slide show is on the wiki)
6 “The invisible curriculum of child rearing” – number of words even heard in the home before K are directly associated with income and level of education of parentsHart & Risley (1995)
7 Children arrive in kindergarten with huge discrepancies in oral language development and the gap between language-advanced and language-delayed children grows throughout the elementary yearsBiemiller (2001)
11 Hannah What does Hannah know about print and how it works? Hannah knows:Evidence:Hannah knows: recognizes pictures and makes connections to parents & favorites - reads from left to right - Where book begins & ends - Makes adequate predictionsEvidence: “favorite part” -- Pointing to left page and moving finger over -- Turned over, title page, that’s the end
12 Concepts About PrintMarie Clay’s term for what emergent readers need to understand about how printed language works and represents language. Its basic components include:Print carries a message (even if “pretend reading”)Books are organized, with a cover, title, and authorDirectionality: Reading flows in a particular and consistent direction, left to right and top to bottom.Printed language consists of letters, words, and sentences (gradually learn to distinguish between)One-to-one matching: More experienced readers begin to recognize matching or upper and lower case letters Concepts About Words > Concepts About LettersWatch the Hannah video and give examples of what she knows about print and how it works.
13 Hannah What does Hannah know about print and how it works? Evidence… Points to the printPoints to the pictures rather than the wordsPoints to things from left to rightShe uses good and appropriate expression (fluency)Hannah knows…Print has meaningThere is meaning in the picturesWhere the cover is and how to open a bookTitle and authorDirectionalityPrint should sound interestingHannah knows: recognizes pictures and makes connections to parents & favorites - reads from left to right - Where book begins & ends - Makes adequate predictionsEvidence: “favorite part” -- Pointing to left page and moving finger over -- Turned over, title page, that’s the end
14 Emergent ReadingConcepts About Print (book orientation, directionality, print = meaning & purpose)Concepts of Word (things > label objects > combine to tell stories > hold concept of word in their mind)Concepts of Alphabet (letter name, formation, special features, direction, isolated & combined sound)
15 Stop and Think….What’s the difference between emergent literacy and traditional definitions of reading readiness?
16 Connecting Speech to Print Some: make the connection automatically through rich and frequent exposure to oral languageMost: benefit from explicit instruction in that essential relationshipFew: will not develop the understanding unless they have explicit, direct instruction, plus many opportunities for repetition to become proficient readers
17 Concepts About PrintHow will you know which of your students has mastered concepts about print and which have not?See your handout: Assessing Print UnderstandingLet’s Try It Out
20 Link this to the 5 Essential Areas of Reading (as outlined in the RI K-12 Literacy Policy) – the first chart on their reading guide – result of National Reading Panel Reports (synthesis of experimental studies in each area)
21 The Big 5 (National Reading Panel Report, 2000) Phonemic Awareness (manipulating sounds)Phonics (relationship between sounds and visual letters)Fluency (speed and accuracy)Vocabulary (listening, speaking, reading, and writing)Text Comprehension (active and purposeful meaning making)Stress the point that ALL FIVE AREAS should be taught at every grade level (although developmentally, more focus may be placed on different areas in varying levels across a typical week perhaps)Developmental OR balanced/comprehensive???ALL FIVE areas should be taught at everygrade level
22 Five Essential Areas of Reading Instruction REFER TO YOUR READING GUIDE #1Phonemic Awareness (3 levels – 9 skills)Phonics (systematic & explicit)Fluency (accuracy, automaticity, prosody)Vocabulary (everyday interactions and explicit instruction)Comprehension (M&MDAVIS)
24 Effective teachers… Questions you have? Tompkins Chapter 1Effective teachers… Questions you have?Understand how children learn (student-centered approaches that appreciate social and cognitive development)Support children’s use of multiple cueing systems (sound, meaning, structure, visual, social)I see the dog > I see the puppy.I see the dog > I see the dish.I see the dog > I seven the dog.Create a community of learners (opportunity, responsibility, risks, and choices)Review these and ask students to present questions they have in that component from their Reflection Homework.
25 Tompkins Chapter 1Effective teachers…4. Adopt a balanced approach to literacy instructionBalance reading and writing (oral, reading, vocabulary, comprehension, phonics, spelling, content-area study)Balance ways of teachingFlexibly meet the needs of studentsBalanced vs. comprehensive5. Scaffold children’s reading and writing (based on their development)6. Use a combination of modeled > shared > interactive > independent activitiesGradual release of responsibility….
27 Effective teachers… 7. Use literature in their instruction Tompkins Chapter 1Effective teachers…7. Use literature in their instruction8. Organize literacy instruction in one of four ways(a) Basal(b) literature focused(c) literature circles(d) reading & writing workshop9. Connect instruction and assessment (identify, monitor, assess, analyze, adjust)10. Become partners with parents.
28 Seeing Connections (and Differences) between Literacy Stages in RI Policy Manual and Tompkins Textbook
29 Stages of Reading Development (RI Policy) Emergent Reader - preschool; “reading”; environmental printBeginning Reader - understanding of the alphabet and words (concepts of print)Transitional Reader - recognizing and manipulating within word differencesIntermediate Reader - Fluency and “problem-solving” about the meaningAdvanced Reader - Reading to learnFLUENTREADER(Tompkins)ACCORDIG TO THE RI DEPT OF EDUCATION EARLY LITERACY POLICY (Link to notes they should be taking on their reading guide)Environmental print: MacDonald’s, Dunkin Donuts; Beginning Reader (My name is Julie, cat > bat > sat > sit > fit);Concepts of print (direction, words, letters, punctuation, print=meaningTransitional Reader: Within word differences (smock vs. smoke; tack vs. take); Intermediate Reader (syllables and affixes – prefixes and suffixes) (hop > hopping vs. trade > trading);Advanced Reader (greek and latin roots for knowing ineffective vs. effective; inactive vs. active); illogical vs. logical; illegible vs. legible)TOMPKINS: Emergent > Beginning > Fluent (pgs )
30 Linking Stages of Reading and Writing Development (Tompkins pp Emergent Writer – writing emerges from drawings; directionality, name, 5-20 wordsBeginning Writer – sentences and upper/lowercase; spell phonetically, wordsFluent Writer – uses writing process; paragraphs, vocabulary, vowel patterns and word endings, punctuationEMERGENT READERBEGINNING READERWalk students through talking about their notes from the RI Reading Policy with examples of eachEnvironmental print: MacDonald’s, Dunkin Donuts; Beginning Reader (My name is Julie, cat > bat > sat > sit > fit);Transitional Reader: Within word differences (smock vs. smoke; tack vs. take); Intermediate Reader (syllables and affixes – prefixes and suffixes) (hop > hopping vs. trade > trading);Advanced Reader (greek and latin roots for knowing ineffective vs. effective; inactive vs. active); illogical vs. logical; illegible vs. legible)FLUENT READER
31 ACTIVITY: Detecting Stages of Reading and Writing Development Work with your groupHow do you know the child is at that stage?How does the teacher foster progress toward the next stage? (materials/texts, opportunities, tasks)
32 Homework Tompkins Ch. 5: Phonemic Awareness Yopp & Yopp: PA Activities Beck: Keywords to PA & PhonicsWTW Chapter 1 (Word Study) and 4 (Emergent Stage of Spelling)Optional reading guideSee outline on next slide
33 Stages of Spelling Development RI POLICY:PrecommunicativeSemiphoneticPhoneticTransitionalConventionalI. Emergent spellingII. Letter Name-Alphabetic StageEarly letter name-alphabetic spellingMiddle to late letter name-alphabeticIII. Within-word pattern SpellingIV. Syllables and affixes SpellingV. Derivational Relations Spelling (meaning)These are the categories described in Words Their Way (linking reading to writing)