Presentation on theme: "Phonics Jillian Marshall February 5, 2015. Phonics: Cracking the Code “At one magical instant in your early childhood— that string of confused, alien."— Presentation transcript:
Phonics: Cracking the Code “At one magical instant in your early childhood— that string of confused, alien ciphers—shivered into meaning. Words spoke to you, gave up their secrets; at that moment, whole universes opened. You became, irrevocably, a reader.” - Alberto Manguel (Blevins, 2006)
What is Phonics? Phonics is the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between the phonemes and graphemes, the letters that represent the sounds in written language. Study of speech sounds related to reading (Gunning, 2013)
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Concepts of Print Letter/Sound Knowledge Oral Language Emergent Literacy
Goals of early literacy instruction 1. Automatic Word Recognition (Fluency) 2. Comprehension of Text 3. Teach a love of reading and literature
Do proficient readers still use phonics when they read? Most of words we see when we read have become sight words. But we need phonics to decode new words. When learning to read, we use phonics first, then eventually recognize words instantly.
Letter/Alphabetic Knowledge Alphabetic Principle: Understanding that there are relationships between letters and sounds Letter-sound knowledge: Ability to associate letters and their sounds
How we read words Predicting Sounding out Chunking Analogy Automatic recognition
How do proficient readers decode unknown words? Most Frequent: 1. Initial consonant 2. Whole word 3. Use a pronounceable word part as a basis for constructing the word Con glob ate Rimes have more predictable pronunciation than individual letters
How do proficient readers decode unknown words? Least frequent: Letter by letter Use of context Phonics rules
Stages of Reading/Writing Prealphabetic Stage L oo k (looks like eyes) Partial Alphabetic Stage Use letter sound relationships, but can’t decode yet: c a t Use of context as well
Stages, cont’d Full Alphabetic Stage Begin to process all letters Read word by word Overemphasis on accuracy and sounding out Consolidated Alphabetic Stage Process longer words and more complex patterns After developing skills, can spend more energy on comprehension
Why Teach Phonics Teach children to read with accuracy, comprehension, fluency, and for fun Reading to Learn Good decoders read many more words than poor decoders Help students become automatic in decoding Use less mental energy Improves spelling
What does phonics instruction look like in your class? Turn and talk to a partner or your table about what phonics and word work instruction looks like in your classroom. Topics to consider: Age ELLs Time Groupings
How to teach Phonics Explicit instruction: Won’t make all discoveries on their own Systematic/Logical sequence: phonemic awareness, sound-spelling relationships, blending, and reading and writing Encourage curiosity about words Start early and don’t overdo it Teach many different strategies for decoding
How to teach cont’d Apply to reading of actual texts and be transparent about why “Children do not use or internalize information unless the skills they have been taught are applicable in their day-to-day reading.” (Gunning, 2013, p.191) Focused, frequent lessons (daily) Teacher Knowledge (digraphs, blends, syllable type, etc.) Role of assessment: Start instruction where they are
Decoding strategies Word Part Is there any part of the word you can say? - yet Analogy Is the word like any word that I know? - yet and net Context After using first two strategies, check to see if it fits in context. But not all cueing systems should be given equal attentionl.
Other things to consider “Generalizations and patterns draw attention to regularities in English Spelling, but actually meeting the elements in print is the way students’ decoding skills become automatic; they can direct fuller attention to comprehension.” (Gunning, 2013, 224). Teach variability principle: explicitly and provide opportunities for practice ELLS: Try to determine what they know in first language and build on that Be careful of teaching rules E.g. Two vowels go walking, first one does the talking
Words Their Way Reading, Writing and Spelling connection: Spelling is a great predictor of reading success Practice spelling helps reading more than practice reading helps spelling Sorting: Deepen understanding about words
Video https://collab.itc.virginia.edu/portal/site/9 5ab7e99-640a-49ed-bcb1- f42a802738ac/page/8eb4f16d-70c7-4445- 8d17-2a7edd0e141a https://collab.itc.virginia.edu/portal/site/9 5ab7e99-640a-49ed-bcb1- f42a802738ac/page/8eb4f16d-70c7-4445- 8d17-2a7edd0e141a Source: UVA, Curry School of Education
Stages of Spelling Development Emergent Letter Name Within Word Syllables and Affixes Derivational Relations
Spelling Stages Sort With a partner, cut and sort the examples of what you think categorizes students at each stage. What do you notice? What was hard about the activity? Which were easy to sort?