Wave of Religious excitement Meetings called “revivals”
*In the early 1800s, the Second Great Awakening – the renewal of religious faith – began. *Revivals took place in many American cities and spread westward forcing people to strengthen their beliefs. *People began to seek salvation. Second Great Awakening
Called for the drinking of little or no alcohol Lyman Beecher Blamed alcohol for evils in society
Led the fight for women’s suffrage Susan B. Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seneca Falls Convention- Declaration of Sentiments
Susan B. Anthony *Supporter of Women’s rights and temperance. *Founded the National Women’s Suffrage Assoc.
Women’s Rights *Elizabeth Cady Stanton fought for women’s suffrage & equal rights for women. Upset over the 15 th amendment *Suffrage – the right to vote *She formed the Seneca Falls Convention a national women’s rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York. Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions: modeled on the Declaration of Independence “All men and women are created equal.”
Henry David Thoreau Transcendentalists – people who stressed the relationship between humans & nature & the importance of the individual conscience Harriet Beecher Stowe- Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin *Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a book written by Harriett Beecher Stowe about the evils of slavery. The book was based on true tales of the horrors of slavery.Uncle Tom’s Cabin *VERY popular book – sold thousands of copies. *A poorly treated slave dies from abuse
Helped create better and more schools Horace Mann (Father of free public education) Elizabeth Blackwell- 1 st woman doctor
In the 1830s, Americans began to demand better schools to educate more children. Horace Mann – led a movement for education reform – “Father of American Public Schools” -Mann set up the first State Board of Education in the U.S. -He demanded more money for schools and education for African Americans -Said every child deserved to be educated Education
Led the fight against slavery William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman
Abolition Movement Abolitionism- the movement to end slavery, began in the late 1700s. *By 1804, most Northern states had outlawed slavery. *By 1807, Congress banned the importation of African slaves into the United States. *Abolitionists then began to work to end slavery
Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison was a white Northerner who published The Liberator, an anti-slavery newspaper -The Liberator preached that slavery was evil and Garrison called for immediate emancipation of all slaves. -He helped organize the American Anti- Slavery Society.
Frederick Douglass was a former slave who was a famous abolitionist. *A powerful public speaker and lecturer for the Anti-Slavery Society. *Published an autobiography of his horrible slave experiences. *Spoke out about the evils of slavery Sojourner Truth was a runaway slave who was a famous abolitionist & fought for women’s rights -Former slave who escaped to live with the Quakers -Famous public speaker who stood up for abolition & women’s rights -Gave famous speech “Ain’t I a Woman”
Harriet Tubman Harriett Tubman was a former slave who was a famous abolitionist and led runaway slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. -She returned to the South 19 times to lead over 300 slaves to freedom – risking her own life every time.
Improved the treatment of prisoners, mentally ill Dorothea Dix
Some Americans promoted to improve society’s care for the weaker members. Dorothea Dix – led a movement for reform in mental hospitals & prisons. -After visiting jails and hospitals and seeing the poor, dirty conditions these people lived in, she fought to improve their lives and living conditions
Horace Mann Dorothea Dix William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglass Harriett Tubman Harriett Beecher Stowe Sojourner Truth Elizabeth Cady Stanton Reform education Reform prisons & ill Abolitionists - ending slavery Abolitionist & women’s rights Women’s suffrage
Abolitionism 1.1.Abolitionism: Reform Movement to end (abolish) slavery. 2.2. What paper did William Lloyd Garrison found? The Liberator 3.What did he call for? He called for immediate emancipation of slaves 4.3. Two sisters (from S.C.) that fought for the abolition of slavery were: Sarah and Angelina Grimke 5.4. Who was the most widely know African American abolitionist? Frederick Douglas- published the North Star
Abolitionism 5. Douglas was an escaped slave who taught himself how to read & write and edited a newspaper called the North Star. 6. Sojourner Truth a famous female escaped slave spoke out against slavery and said the famous words: “And ain’t I a woman?” 7. The network of escape routes from the South to the North was called the Underground Railroad. 8. TRUE or FALSE: the Underground Railroad had a system of trains and tracks. False 9. Harriet Tubman was a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad. Slaveholders offered a large reward for Tubman’s death or capture.
Abolitionism 10. TRUE or FALSE: Most people in the North were Abolitionists. False 11. The South reacted by mounting arguments in defense of slavery. 12. Some fugitives fled to Canada rather than staying in the north because of the Fugitive Slave Laws.
Women’s Rights 1. Female reformers met at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. 2. Who organized this convention? Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and others. 3. The women wanted an end to laws that discriminated against women.
4. The women demanded suffrage, or the right to vote. 5. The Seneca Falls Convention paved the way for the growth of the women’s rights movement 6. Another supporter of women’s rights, as well as temperance, was Susan B. Anthony 7. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was modeled after the Declaration of Independence. All men & women created equal
Henry David Thoreau wrote the essay “Civil Disobedience” and followed his example when he willfully refused to pay a federal tax because of his disagreement with slavery and the Mexican War. -He went to jail for not paying the tax and his example has been emulated by other leaders including pre-Civil War Abolitionists and Civil Rights leaders such as Martin Luther King.