Presentation on theme: "1.What European nations imperialized Africa? 2.Who were the Boers? 3.How did the Zulus respond to European imperialism? 4.Why were Liberia and Ethiopia."— Presentation transcript:
1.What European nations imperialized Africa? 2.Who were the Boers? 3.How did the Zulus respond to European imperialism? 4.Why were Liberia and Ethiopia the only African nations to remain free?
In the 1870s the Belgians began to trade with Africans in the Congo. King Leopold Fearing they would miss out on various raw materials, the other European nations scrambled to establish their presence on the continent.
In 1884, to avoid conflict amongst themselves, European leaders met at the Berlin Conference to set up rules for colonizing Africa. No Africans were invited. Berlin Conference
The European powers agreed that before they could claim territory they would have to set up an outpost. Whoever was the first to build the outpost gained that area of land. Berlin Conference
Cape Colony In the mid-1600s, Dutch farmers known as Boers settled in southern Africa in Cape Colony. The Boers built Cape Town as a supply station. In the 1700s, the Dutch herders and ivory hunters began to move north. The British then acquired Cape Colony in the early 1800s. The Boers Cape Town Cape Colony Boers AFRICA
In the late 1800s, the discovery of gold and diamonds in the northern Boer territory set off the Anglo-Boer war. The war was from and involved bitter guerrilla fighting. The British won, but at a great cost. The Anglo-Boer War British Boers
The Zulus In the early 1800s in southern Africa, an African leader named Shaka conquered and united tribes to form the Zulu nation. Zulu Nation Cape Town Cape Colony Shaka Zulu
The Zulus The Zulus were skilled and organized fighters. Shaka used his power and fought against European slave traders and ivory hunters.
The Zulus Zulu Nation The Zulus also fought the Boers as they migrated north from Cape Colony. Cape Town Cape Colony Boers
The Anglo-Zulu War The Zulus came into conflict with the British as well. In 1879 the Zulus wiped out a British force at the battle of Isandlwana.
However, it was not long before the superior weaponry of the British overtook the Zulus at the battle of Rorke’s Drift. The Anglo-Zulu War
European Territory AFRICA Cape Town Cape Colony In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted apartheid. Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races. South Africa
Britain France Germany Italy Portugal Belgium Spain Europeans In Africa By 1914
Britain’s claims in Africa were second in size only to France, but included heavily populated areas with greater natural resources. British Territory Britain controlled Egypt because of its strategic location.
France was very powerful in North Africa, and later spread into West and Central Africa. The territory France controlled was as large as the United States. French Territory
The newly formed German empire had to fight many battles against African natives to take lands in the southern half of Africa. German Territory Germany would lose its colonial territories after its loss in World War I.
The Italians crossed the Mediterranean and conquered Libya. They then took Somaliland in the horn of Africa, but were beaten badly by the Ethiopians. Italian Territory
King Leopold and other wealthy Belgians exploited the riches of the Congo, and brutalized the natives. Many Africans were enslaved, beaten, and killed. Belgium Territory
Although the leaders of the old imperialism, the African claims of the Portuguese and Spanish were minimal. Portuguese Territory Spanish Territory
After the slave trade was outlawed, abolitionists in the United States promoted the idea of returning freed slaves to Africa. Independent Africans In the early 1800s, President Monroe helped free slaves settle in Liberia. The former slaves named the capital city Monrovia in his honor. President Monroe
Independent Africans The Ethiopians kept their freedom through a successful military resistance. Emperor Menelik II modernized the army, along with roads, bridges, and schools. When the Italians invaded they were defeated so badly by Menelik that no other Europeans tried to take Ethiopia.
Positive ResultsNegative Results 1. Unified national states created1. Encouraged tribal wars by creating artificial borders 2. Improved medical care, sanitation, and nutrition 2. Created population explosion famine 3. Increased agricultural production3. Produced cash crops needed by Europeans, and not food for Africans 4. Improved transportation and communication facilities 4. Exploited natural resources: minerals, lumber, rubber, human rights. 5. Expanded educational opportunities 5. Downgraded traditional African culture westernization
BritainFranceGermanyBelgium Home Area (Square Miles) 94,000212,600210,00011,800 Home Population (Millions) Global Colonial Area (Millions of Sq. Miles) Global Colonial Population (Millions) European Imperialism by 1914
RegionPercentage Colonized Australia100% Africa90.4% Asia56.5% Americas27.2% European Imperialism by 1914