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Three Chinese Philosophies

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Presentation on theme: "Three Chinese Philosophies"— Presentation transcript:

1 Three Chinese Philosophies
Confucianism Daoism Legalism

2 Long, Long Ago, During the Zhou Dynasty In a Middle Kingdom Far, Far Away . . .

3 Lived a Scholar Named Confucius!
Name: Kungfu Tze From a lower noble family Sought a government official job Goal: A Peaceful, Harmonious Society

4 Basic Confucian Beliefs
Man is good, if good examples are set for him Filial Piety - devotion, loyalty to family Obedience and respect for authority Education is the only equalizer Rulers should lead by setting a good example

5 Confucius also said . . .

6 Confucius said: Do not do to others what you would not want done to you

7 FILIAL PIETY “A Son should not stray far from his parents while they are alive parents, when alive, should be served according to ritual; when dead, they should be buried according to ritual; they should be sacrificed to according to ritual."

8 Five Key Relationships
Ruler and Subject Husband and Wife Parent and Child Older and Younger Sibling Friends Unequal Relationships (Kow Tow) Confucius believed that if people performed their familial roles properly, they would perform their roles in society and government properly.

9 Confucius: In education there is no class distinction.
But in ancient China only the sons of wealthy nobles could have the opportunity to become educated.

10 Confucius said: “If the Ruler is upright, then the People will be upright”. The emperor's role was like that of a father: he would love his subjects as if they were his children, and they in turn would show loyalty and respect for him. Remember the Mandate of Heaven? What were signs that a ruler was NOT upright and had lost the Mandate?

11 Impact of Confucianism
After his death, Confucius’ disciples wrote his sayings in “The Analects” During the Han dynasty, it became the basis of Chinese government bureaucracy (civil service exams were based on Confucian ideas and ancient Chinese books) It influenced social life, government and education for over 2000 years.

12 Communists tried to end Confucian ideas in the Mao era
Children were encouraged to denounce parents who were capitalist or Western. The government wanted loyalty to the state, not the family. Yet in both Confucianism and Communism loyalty to an authority or group is important. Confucianism was not successfully ended by Mao.

13 What does Star Wars have to do with the Chinese Philosophy Daoism?

14 So What is Daoism? Lao Zi (Lao Tze) lived in the Zhou dynasty as well
It was a period of warring states, so he, too, wanted a philosophy to bring peace and harmony to China He sought harmony through following the intuitive way of nature. . .

15 Lao Zi Little is known about him
May have been a clerk in the imperial archives Wrote the Dao de Jing “The Way and its Power” Disappeared westward

16 What is the Dao? is mysterious and profound;
cannot be explained in words; is the source of all life; is always in motion; permeates everything but cannot be pinned down; cannot be changed by humans; can be a source of power for humans who act in accord with it.

17 Daoists Have an intense love of nature and affirmation of life
Sought physical health, vitality, longevity and even immortality

18 Daoist landscape art

19 Wu Wei Just be Take no specific action Offer no resistance
Go with the flow of nature. Emptiness


21 In harmony with nature

22 Daoist influences

23 Chinese science and invention
Math, Astronomy

24 Harmony with Nature Intuition
Summary of Daoism Harmony with Nature Intuition

25 Legalism Qin Dynasty Emperor Shuhuangdi Great Wall linked
Centralized power Allowed agriculture and war Burnt all books

26 Han Feizi Believed man is bad Punishments must be harsh
Similar to Machiavelli in “The Prince”

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