Presentation on theme: "David Mejia The Byzantine Empire and Muslim civilizations."— Presentation transcript:
David Mejia The Byzantine Empire and Muslim civilizations
The Byzantine Empire Capital: Constantinople Constantine start his rule of the Roman Empire in A.D. 306. Became Christian and stop the persecution of christians. Decided to build a new imperial capital Constantine chose Byzantium (Ancient city founded by the greeks)
Trade Constantinople was built at a mayor crossroads of land and sea trade routes. Goods came to Constantinople from Kiev in the north, from Egypt from the south, and from China in the east. Byzantines charged taxes on all goods that went through the city. Over time, the Byzantine empire grew rich
The Byzantines Stand alone The western Roman empire fell. After it fell the eastern or Byzantine empire stood alone. In the early Middle ages ( The period from the fall of Roman Empire) the Byzantine Empire remained strong.
The Emperor Justinian One of the greatest Byzantine emperors was justinian. He had been born into a poor family, and he listened to the ideas of all his subjects, whether they were wealthy nobles or poor peasants. Justinian Code - One of Justinian’s most lasting contributions was a system of laws. - The Justinian’s Code was an organized collection and explanation of Roman laws for use by the Byzantine Empire.
The Empire’s later Years After Justinian’s death in 565, the Byzantine Empire began to decline. Later emperors had to fight wars against neighboring enemies including Persians, Turks, Arabs, Germanic people. A Religious Dipute - Byzantine Christians rejected the authority of the pope (the leader of the church in rome) - At that time many christians pray to saints or holy people, represented by icons, or paintings of this people. In 700s, a byzantine emperor outlawed the use of icons, saying that they violated Gods commandment.
The pope disagreed, and banish the emperor from the church. Byzantines felt that the pope did not have the authority to banish the emperor from the church These disputes led to a schism, or split in the cristian church in 1054 Now there were 2 distinct forms of christianity: 1.) The Roman Catholic Churh 2.) Orthodox Church
A Second Golden Age From about 900 until the mid-1000s, the Byzantine Empire expierenced a final period of Greatness. Trade increased and merchants came to constantinople from as ar away as Venice and Russia. The fall of Constantinople - During the 1000s Muslim people to the east were also gaining power. - In 1453, a force of about 70000 Turks sorrounded Constantinople. They came both by sea and by land and brought cannons to attack the city’s walls. - Then the Byzantine capital which had been a defensive fortress for more than 1000 years, finally fells.
The Begginings of Islam This religion teaches that in about 610, the prophet Muhammad went into a cave in the arabian mountains to pray. It is said that while Muhammad was inside the cave, he heard the voice of an angel. God told Muhammad through the angel that there was only one God, that God had created people, and that God would teach His people. They said that the angel told Muhammad that Muhammad was to be God’s messenger.
The Arabian Peninsula Much of the Arabian Peninsula was covered by desert. Although sorrounded by water, the peninsula has no mayor rivers and receives little rainfall. Many groups of Bedouins made their homes among the shifting sand dunes o the desert. Nomadic Bedouins - The bedouins were nomads or people who have no permanent home but move from place to place in search of food, water, and pasture - Because of their knowledge of the desert and its oases, the bedouins also worked as guides for trader
Mecca The oases in the arabian peninsula became busy trading centers. One of the most important was Mecca From Mecca, great caravans traveled to markets in: 1.) Syria 2.) In the area now known as Iraq 3.) Yemen
Muhammad Was born and grew up in the trading center of mecca Born in about 570, his family was poor Muhammad was a prophet A person that accepts Muhammad’s teachings came to be known as a Muslim. Muslim Belief - 5 times a day the muezzin’s voice echoes in all directions: “There is no god but God, and muhammad is the messenger of God.” - A muezzin is a mn who calls muslims to worship. - 5 times a day every faithful muslim stops whatever he or she is doing to pray. - The Quran is the holy book of Islam.
The 5 Pillars of Islam PILLARDESCRIPTION DECLARATION OF FAITH MUSLIMS MUST REGULARLY DECLARE THE BELIEF THAT THERES IS ONLY ONE GOD AND MUHAMMAD IS GOD’S MESSENGER. PRAYERMUSLIMS MUST PRAY 5 TIMES EACH DAY, FACING IN THE DIRECTION OF THE HOLY CITY OF MECCA. ALMSGIVINGMUSLIMS MUST GIVE ALMS, OR MONEY THAT GOES TO THE NEEDY. FASTINGMUSLIMS MUST FAST DURING DAYLIGHT HOURS IN THE MONTH OF RAMADAN. PILGRIMAGEMUSLIMS MUST MAKE A PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA AT LEAST ONE TIME IN THEIR LIVES IF THEY ARE ABLE.
A split among Muslims After tha death of Uthman (the leader of muslim community) the muslim world split into two: 1.)Shiites (smaller group): argued that the ruler should be a man who was a direct descendant of Muhammad. 2.)Sunnis( larger group): argued that any truly religious muslim man of Muhammads tribe could lead the community.
Muslim Civilization The Spread of Islam - Within 150 years after Muhammad’s death in 632, Islam spread west to North Africa, and into present-day Spain. Many New converts - Arab merchants traveled to many parts of Asia and North Africa. Many of this traders were muslims, and they helped to spread their new religious beliefs.
The Golden Age The golden age of muslim culture lasted from about 800 to 1100. Great advances were made in Mathematics and Science. Under Muslim rulers called caliphs, the empire developed and grew rich. ACHIEVMENTS OF THE GOLDEN AGE: - They learned about the idea of zero from indian scholars - Helped invent algebra - Muslim writers created many lasting works of literature
The Ottoman Empire After about 900, the power of the caliphs declined. In 1258, invading Mongols killed the last caliph in Baghdad.Much of the muslim world was now controlled by Mongols and Turks The Ottoman lands were also home to many christians and Jews. The Ottomans treated this groups with tolerance. This tolerance help to strengthen the Ottoman Empire. Over time, however the empire weakened. Corrupt officials use their jobs for private gain. Europeans defeated the Ottomans in 1683, the Ottoman Empire began a long decline.