Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam What great empire centered in Constantinople flourished for 1000 years?"— Presentation transcript:
The Byzantine Empire and the Rise of Islam What great empire centered in Constantinople flourished for 1000 years?
Fall of Western Rome After the fall of Western Rome, 2 new empires arose in the Eastern Mediterranean Region Byzantine Empire, whose culture and religion spread to Russia Islamic Empire, whose beliefs spread to lands from Spain to India
Constantinople Ruled an Eastern Empire Constantine moved capital of Rome to Constantinople, a strategically located seaport Controlled shipping between Asia and Mediterranean Kept Rome alive after the fall of the West and became the Byzantine Empire
Justinian’s Changes Over 18 years, Justinian tried to get Rome back from Ostrogoths. The fighting went back and forth over Rome. Ruined the city of Rome Meanwhile, Justinian made Constantinople wealthy with markets, palaces, universities, and churches.
Justinian Code Justinian’s legal reforms are his most enduring legacy. Hired scholars to organize the thousands of Roman laws into one code Basis of Byzantine law for next 900 years, as well as future European law
Religious Disputes Byzantine Christians vs. Christians of Western Europe Pope in Rome is head of Christian Church in West, and of all Christians everywhere Patriarch, (head of Byzantine Church), refused to accept his authority, he recognized Byzantine emperor as leading authority
Icons Icons – West says Ok, East says No Way. Iconoclasts – smashed icons, claimed they were a part of idol worship Pope supports use of Icons Byzantine emperor and Roman Pope excommunicate one another – Permanent split between Churches
Two Churches Western Branch becomes Roman Catholic Church Eastern Branch becomes Eastern Orthodox Church This is both a religious and political break between the East and the West
A New Faith Spread from Arabia South of Constantinople, a new faith gave rise to a new empire – Islam Muhammad had a vision hailing him as the messenger of Allah, (God, same one Jews and Christians worship). He believed he was the prophet of Allah, and began to preach in Mecca
Islam – “Surrender to God” Muhammad won many militaristic followers in Medina after being driven out of Mecca He returned to Mecca with his followers and preached there until his death in 632 Abu-Bakr, the new Muslim leader, had Muhammad’s teachings recorded in Arabic in the Koran, which is the holy book of Islam Arabic became the language of worship, learning and literature in the region
5 Pillars Faith in Allah as the only God Muhammad is the prophet of God Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Alms Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Followers were willing to die for their faith –To spread their religion, they began an era of conquest, spreading Islam across Egypt, North Africa, Spain, Portugal, Persia, and India
Islamic Empire Caliphs, successors of Muhammad, were both spiritual and political leaders Built a new capital city in Baghdad, which was a center of trade, science, art, and education (for Jews, Christians and Muslims) –Invented Algebra –found treatments for disease etc.
Decline of Byzantine Empire Constantinople had fought off Muslim invaders for 750 years, (well fortified), but could not hold out against Muhammad II, the Ottoman sultan. Read Turning Points in History on pages 196-197
Spread of Islam Stopped in France Islam had spread throughout the Mediterranean and conquered most of Spain. In the 8 th Century Islam moved northward into France - In the Battle of Tours (Tours is a city in France) in 732 AD, Charles Martel of France defeated the Islamic Warriors thereby pushing Islam south of France
The Golden Age This was a Golden Age of learning where civilization, religious and ethnic tolerance, interfaith harmony, discovery and free debate were the norm. Libraries, colleges, public baths were established and literature, poetry and architecture flourished. Cordoba In the 10th century, Cordoba, the capital of Umayyad Spain, was unrivalled in both East and the West for its wealth and civilization. One author wrote about Cordoba: "there were half a million inhabitants, living in 113,000 houses. There were 700 mosques and 300 public baths spread throughout the city and its twenty-one suburbs. The streets were paved and lit... There were bookshops and more than seventy libraries." Muslim scholars served as a major link in bringing Greek philosophy, of which the Muslims had previously been the main custodians, to Western Europe. Cordoba, Mosque