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Breads Ch. 22.

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Presentation on theme: "Breads Ch. 22."— Presentation transcript:

1 Breads Ch. 22

2 Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the presentation

3 Categories of Breads Quick Breads Yeast Breads
Prepare in a short amount of time Biscuits Muffins Popovers Cream puffs Pancakes Waffles Coffee cakes Require more time to prepare Breads Rolls English muffins Raised doughnuts crullers

4 Selecting and Storing Baked Products
Quick breads and yeast breads are baked products Freshly Baked – ready to eat sold in bakeries, in bakery sections of supermarkets, and on supermarket shelves Brown-and-Serve – partially baked, need a final browning in the oven sold in bakery sections of supermarkets

5 Selecting and Storing Baked Products
Refrigerated dough – ready to bake found in refrigerated sections of supermarkets Frozen dough – require thawing, proofing, and/or baking Found in freezer section of supermarkets

6 Cost of Baked Products Cost of baked products depends on the amount of convenience Ready-to-serve costs more than frozen Bread costs depend on size, extra ingredients, and brand

7 Storing Baked Products
Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped Freezing bread in hot humid weather prevents mold growth Remove slices from freezer as needed, thaw and eat Refrigerate products with cream, custard, or other perishable fillings Keep refrigerated doughs refrigerated or frozen doughs frozen until you plan to bake them

8 Quick Breads Batters Doughs Range in consistency
Pour batters – large amount of liquid and small amount of flour Pancakes & popovers Drop Batters – high proportion of flour and low proportion of liquid Biscuits & muffins Large amount of flour and small amount of liquid Can be shaped by hand Shortcake & rolled biscuits

9 Quick Bread Ingredients

10 Flour Gives structure to baked products
White wheat most often used in baking All-purpose flour used in most recipes Self-rising flour – all purpose flour with added leavening agents and salt

11 Leavening Agents Ingredients that produce gases in batters and doughs
Make baked products rise and become light and porous Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) – an alkaline ingredient Used in recipes that contain acidic ingredients Acids balance the alkali preventing bitter taste Buttermilk, molasses, brown sugar, vinegar, honey, apple sauce and other fruit, and citrus juices

12 Leavening Agents Baking Powder – contain dry acid, baking soda, and starch or flour Using too much will cause too much carbon dioxide and your baked goods will collapse and become small and compact Steam – produced when liquid ingredients reach high temperatures during baking Air – incorporated into baked goods by beating eggs, creaming fat and sugar, and beating batters All baked products contain some air

13 Liquids Water, milk, fruit juices, eggs, and fats
Hydrate protein and starch in flour Proteins must absorb water to form gluten Starch must absorb water to gelatinize during baking Moisten or dissolve ingredients Baking powder, salt, and sugar Leaven baked goods when converted to steam

14 Fat Tenderize baked products Aids in leavening
Fat coats the flour particles and causes the dough structure to separate into layers Aids in leavening When beaten air bubbles form and the fat traps the air bubbles and hold them

15 Eggs Incorporates air into baked products Adds color and Flavor
Contributes to structure During baking, the egg proteins coagulate The coagulated proteins gives the batter or dough elasticity and structure

16 Sugar Adds sweetness to baked products Tenderizes crusts
Aids in browning In yeast breads, sugar serves as food for yeast Brown sugar produces baked goods that are moister than products made with granulated sugar

17 Salt Adds flavor to baked products
In yeast breads, it regulates the action of the yeast and inhibits the action of certain enzymes If yeast breads contain no salt they will produce carbon dioxide too quickly and be difficult to handle and have a poor appearance.

18 Adjusting Ingredients
Baking powder, fat, eggs, sugar, and salt each perform certain functions in baked goods Some recipes call for more of these ingredients than necessary Cutting down on unneeded ingredients will result in breads that are lower in calories, fat, and sodium

19 Workbook P. 114 Please take a moment to complete workbook p The chart on p. 390 will help you.

20 Please use workbook p. 115 to take notes during the presentation

21 Food Science Principles
Gluten – a protein that gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs and structure to baked products It holds leavening gases which make quick breads rise Gluten is created from gliadin and glutenin When you combine wheat flour with a liquid and stir or knead it, the gliadin and glutenin combine to form gluten

22 Example When you first start to chew bubble gum, it is soft and easy to chew As you chew the gum, it becomes more elastic, and you can blow bubbles As you continue to chew for a long time, it becomes so elastic it makes your jaw hurt

23 Gluten Gluten behaves in a similar way
If you mix or handle a batter or dough too much, the gluten will over develop and the bread will be compact and tough To keep quick bread light and tender, mix only a short period of time

24 Types of Flour Different types of white wheat flour contain different amounts of gliadin and glutenin The strength of the gluten produced by each flour differs In baking, you must use they type of flour listed or the texture will come out wrong Ex. Yeast breads have a strong gluten structure, cakes have a delicate gluten structure and quick breads fall in between

25 Food Science at Work Chemical reactions in quick breads produce leavening gases Baking soda is an alkali, when combined with an acid, it releases carbon dioxide Acids help neutralize the batter, which would otherwise have a bitter taste and off color Baking Powders are often double-acting They release some carbon dioxide when they are moistened, then release most of their carbon dioxide when they are heated

26 Preparing Biscuits Biscuit Method
Involves sifting dry ingredients together in a mixing bowl Use a pastry blender or knives to cut fat into the dry ingredients Continue cutting until the particles are the size of coarse cornmeal Add liquid all at once, and stir until dough forms a ball

27 Preparing Biscuits Dry ingredients Liquid ingredients
Flour, baking powder, and salt May use self-rising flour, which is a combo of all three Liquid ingredients Milk to buttermilk Drop Biscuits – drop from a spoon onto a greased cookie sheet Contain higher proportion of liquid Rolled biscuits – knead the dough, roll into a circle and cut dough with a biscuit cutter and bake on an ungreased baking sheet.

28 Characteristics of Rolled Biscuits
Have an even shape with a smooth, level top and straight sides Crust is an even brown When broken open the crumb is white Moist and fluffy, peels into layers Under mixed – low volume and rounded top (rough) Over mixed – low volume and rounded top (smooth)

29 Preparing Muffins Muffin Method
Measure dry ingredients into a mixing bowl Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients In a separate bowl, combine beaten eggs with milk and oil or melted fat Pour all the liquids into the well of dry ingredients Stir the batter until just moistened

30 Preparing Muffins Dry ingredients Liquid ingredients
Flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar Fruits, nuts, cheese, and other ingredients may be added Liquid ingredients Milk or water, eggs, and fat After combining ingredients, drop muffin batter into a greased muffin pan and bake

31 Characteristics of Muffins
Thin, evenly brown crust Top is symmetrical, but looks rough When broken apart, texture is uniform Crumb is tender and light Under mixed – low volume, coarse crumb, and flat top Over mixed – peaked top, pale slick crust, and when broken apart, narrow tunnels are visible

32 Preparing Popovers Use the muffin method when preparing popovers
Place in a hot oven for the first part of baking Allows steam to expand walls of the popover Lower oven temperature to prevent over browning DO NOT open door to check popovers This will cause popovers to collapse

33 Characteristics of Popovers
Good volume Shell is golden brown and crisp Interior contains slightly moist strands of dough Under baked – collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy Over baked – over browned exterior, dry interior

34 Preparing Cream Puffs Cream Puff Method
Bring water and fat to a boil Add flour and stir vigorously over low heat until the mixture forms a ball Remove mixture from heat, stir in eggs until mixture is smooth This mixture is called puff paste

35 Preparing Cream Puffs Drop puff paste onto an ungreased baking sheet
Bake in a hot oven to rise, then lower temperature to prevent overbrowning DO NOT open door to check cream puffs This will cause the steam to condense and the cream puffs will collapse

36 Characteristics of Cream Puffs
Good volume Brown, tender crust Interior should be hollow Under baked - collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy Evaporation of too much liquid will cause cream puffs to ooze fat

37 Storing Quick Breads Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped

38 Yeast Breads

39 Please use workbook p. 116 to take notes during the presentation

40 Flour All purpose flour can be used for most yeast breads
Bread flour contains larger amounts of gliadin and glutenin making it ideal for bread machines This is ideal because the action of the bread machine requires stronger gluten. Whole wheat, rye, corn, soy, and oat flours have lower protein content than all purpose This creates loaves that are denser or more compact These flours are generally used in combination with all purpose flour to create lighter loaves

41 Liquid Plain water, potato water, milk, buttermilk, fruit juices, applesauce, and cottage cheese Milk produces a softer crust and helps breads stay fresh longer than water Temperature of liquids affect yeast cells. Liquids too cold can stop yeast activity Liquids too hot can kill yeast 105°F - 115°F

42 Salt Regulates the action of the yeast
Without salt, dough is sticky and hard to handle When baked loaf will look moth-eaten Omitting salt can cause the top of the loaf to collapse

43 Yeast A microscopic single-celled fungus that causes baked products to rise Available in three forms Compressed – made from fresh, moist cells that are pressed into cakes Active Dry – made from an active yeast strain that has been dried and made into granules Fast-rising – highly active yeast strains that have been dried and made into smaller granules that cause them to act more quickly.

44 Yeast Active dry & fast acting are both available in foil packets and glass jars Should be stored in a cool dry place – refrigerate after opening Buy in small quantities and use promptly – may be frozen Using too much yeast will cause dough to rise too quickly Excess yeast gives bread undesirable flavor, texture, and appearance

45 Sugar Types – granulated, brown sugar, honey, molasses
Influence browning, flavor, and texture Provide extra food for the yeast Too much sugar will cause dough to rise more slowly Bread machines have special cycles for sweet breads

46 Fat Increases the tenderness of yeast breads
Fat is optional in some traditional recipes (made by hand) but is required in bread machine recipes Most use solid fat (lard, butter, margarine, shortening) but some call for oil

47 Eggs Add flavor and richness to breads Add color and improve structure
Adding an egg to recipes that call for whole grain flour will improve structure and volume. Eggs are considered a liquid ingredient in yeast breads If you add an egg to the recipe decrease the liquids by ¼ cup

48 Other Ingredients Added to yeast breads for flavor and variety.
Suggestions: Raisins Nuts Cheese Herbs Spices

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