How does Yeast work? living organism that releases CO 2 must be hydrated and warmed (“bloom”) 105-115 degrees too hot heat kills yeast Too cold – no rise too much yeast = poor flavor & texture
Yeast Bread Ingredients All must contain: flour liquid salt yeast Some yeast breads contain: sugar fat eggs
Flour main ingredient in bread all-purpose or bread flour (which is higher in protein) provides structure due to gluten *(remember the bubble gum example)
Liquid Usually water, potato water, or milk (for a softer crust) must be 105º-115º F for yeast to bloom dissolves dry ingredients, causes gluten to form produces steam when heated
Salt & Fat Salt regulates yeast growth enhances the flavor of other ingredient Fat (solid or oil) increases tenderness
Sugar & Eggs Sugar Usually granulated (white) May also use brown sugar, honey, molasses Provides food for yeast growth Browns crusts, adds flavor, improves texture Eggs Emulsifies, adds color, and nutritional value Produces steam, moistens dry ingredients
Mixing Methods for Yeast Breads Traditional Method Quick-Rise Method
Traditional Method 1. Dissolve yeast in water 105º-115ºF 2. Add remaining liquid, sugar, fat, salt, 3. Add flour 4. Knead until smooth and elastic. 5. Allow dough to rise in a warm place. 6. Punch down and shape. 7. Place into pan, allow to rise again 8. Bake.
You Need to Knead Correctly! Knead: press dough with heals of hands, fold it, & turn it Develops gluten Don’t use too much flour (it will become tough) Don’t over work the dough (it will become tough)
Fermentation Yeast acts upon sugars to form alcohol and carbon dioxide Alcohol burns off in baking Carbon dioxide causes rise Dough should double in volume Indentation test (should leave a fingerprint)
After Fermentation Punch down dough to release some carbon dioxide Shape dough 2 nd Rise Bake oven spring: dough rises dramatically during the first few minutes of baking cool on cooling racks
Quick-Rise Method Use fast-rising yeast Don’t punch down, bake after 1 st rising.
Storing Bread Products Room Temperature: for a few days (in a bag) Plastic will soften the bread Paper will allow it to become crisp Freezer: long term storage Refrigeration makes them stale
Signs of a Good Loaf! large volume smooth rounded top golden brown crust texture is fine and uniform (no tunnels) tender