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Animal Waste Management. Outline Manure/Waste Characteristics Animal Waste Handling Systems Sampling Animal Waste Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Waste Management. Outline Manure/Waste Characteristics Animal Waste Handling Systems Sampling Animal Waste Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Waste Management

2 Outline Manure/Waste Characteristics Animal Waste Handling Systems Sampling Animal Waste Management

3 What is Manure or Waste? Manure = Feces + Urine as excreted Waste = Manure + Bedding + Wasted feed + Leaked water + etc

4 Manure/Waste Quantity and Composition Depends on:  Animal species  Diet - digestibility, protein, fiber content  Animal age & productivity  Number of animals  Waste handling system (added H 2 0, bedding)

5 Units of Measure Manure production  lbs/day/1000 lbs live weight  lbs/animal/day  Gallons or ft 3 /day/1000 lb live weight

6 Nutrients in Manure Major Nutrients (N, P, and K) Presented in terms of nutrient itself (N, P, K) Commercial Fertilizer expressed as  Nitrogen – N  Phosphorus - P 2 0 5  Potassium - K 2 O Must convert!!! Other Nutrients Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Cl

7 Example: Manure Production For A dairy farm milking 100 cows a day, determine: Mass of manure produced per day Volume of manure per day Pounds of N, P, and K produced per day Storage capacity required on the farm if the manure is to be stored for three months

8 Generally classified as liquid, slurry, solid depending upon solids content Liquid< 5% solids Slurry 5-20% solids Solid >20% solids Manure/Waste Classification Solids content determines how manure or waste is handled

9 Manure/Waste Handling System Components Housing facility Collection and transfer Storage/Treatment Transport Utilization

10 Manure/Waste Handling Systems All Systems start with production by animals All systems end with utilization  Common - land application as a fertilizer for crop production No System is best

11 Solid/Semi Solid Systems System of choice for most poultry operations Material from dairies often not “dry” enough to stack well Separated solids but separating liquids and solids mean two sets of manure handling equipment Separate runoff/leachate holding facilities may be required

12 Solid Manure: Poultry Litter

13 Deep - pack Sometimes used for swine, beef, and dairy production Results in semi- composted solid waste



16 Liquid Systems Common in swine and dairy production Allows greater automation of manure collection with flush systems

17 Components of Liquid Systems Collection  Flush (gutter or slotted floor)  Scrape (tractor or cable) Transfer  Conveyor - auger  Pump  Gravity channel, pipes Storage  Tanks – steel or concrete  Earthen basin or lagoon Transport  Tank wagon  Irrigation system

18 Pigs on a slotted floor

19 Concrete Storage Tank

20 Lagoon

21 Manure Treatment and Storage

22 Manure Treatment Objectives Stabilize manure Odor reduction Nutrient management Energy recovery Pathogen reduction Reduce gaseous emissions

23 Some Manure Treatment Options Compost Direct Combustion Gasification Chemicals Fertilizer Energy Solids Anaerobic Digestion

24 Manure Treatment Systems - Principles Biological processes Anaerobic (w/out oxygen) Aerobic (with oxygen) Chemical Treatment Physical processes e.g. solids separation

25 Why Treat Manure: Water Quality Concerns Potential PollutantEnvironmental Risk Organic Matter Oxygen depletion Color, Turbidity, Taste, & Odor Nutrients (Nitrogen & Phosphorus) Fish kills Human and animal health Eutrophication Pathogens Human and animal health

26 Why Treat Manure: Air Quality Concerns Potential PollutantEnvironmental Risk Organic Matter Odor Green house gases Nitrogen Acid Rain Particulates and Smog Human & animal health Odor Pathogens Human & animal health

27 Example: On-Farm Swine Manure Treatment System Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS, SC.

28 Liquid-Solid Separator with Polymer (PAM) Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS, SC.

29 Nitrification for Ammonia Removal Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS, SC. Nitrifying Pellets

30 Phosphorus Separation Module Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS, SC.

31 Anaerobic Lagoon was Transformed into “Aerobic” Pond Sept. 2002Sept. 2003 Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS, SC. Before After

32 Covered In-Ground Anaerobic Digester Source: Cheng, NC State Univ.

33 Nitrification Biofilters Tomato Production in Greenhouse using treated swine lagoon liquid

34 Some Questions to ask when Selecting a Treatment System What happens to nutrients How do products of the treatment system impact the environment, regulations Pathogen reduction Energy generated and/or consumed by system Pretreatment necessary? Operation and maintenance Installed anywhere? $$$$ COST $$$$

35 Utilization energy (methane generation) bedding (separated solids) mulch organic matter plant nutrients

36 Testing Manure/Waste Test manure at least once a year Actual data much better than tabulated Variation due to diet, animal age, handling, storage, etc

37 Sampling Manure Required at least annually Must be “representative” Actual samples much more reliable than tabulated values

38 Representative Sampling from Liquid Storage Best time to sample is just before land application Agitation critical—nitrogen and potassium can be characterized by sampling a vertical profile, but phosphorus can not. Continuous agitation needed to assure phosphorus remains in solution

39 Sampling a lagoon Want to sample vertical profile - don’t need to sample sludge layer, unless the sludge is to be removed or lagoon is being closed Use a tube to sample entire profile or Sample at 5 or 6 discrete locations and composite sample

40 Sampling Solid/Semi-solid Manure Use a 3’ long piece of metal tubing with handles attached to get sampler into pile Pull samples from 10 to 15 locations Composite samples, mix well

41 Shipping Samples Freeze if they can’t be shipped immediately For liquids, fill a plastic quart container with screw-on lid about 2/3 full For solids, place in gallon-sized plastic bag, twist and tie tightly Label all samples with name, sample number, location and test date

42 Safety Considerations Dangerous gases (e.g. Hydrogen Sulfide) are produced when an anaerobic manures are agitated. If possible remove animals from building. If not, ventilate at highest rate. Methane gas is a concern due to explosive nature especially in confined spaces

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