Presentation on theme: "BEEF FEEDLOT FACILITIES"— Presentation transcript:
1BEEF FEEDLOT FACILITIES ByDavid R. HawkinsMichigan State University
2Basic Animal Requirements Fresh AirFresh Feed and WaterProtection from Extremes (Heat or Cold)WindbreakSun ShadeReasonably Dry Place to Lie Down
3Why Feedlot Buildings? Land Utilization Labor Utilization Large Inventory of Cattle to ManageMechanization of Feeding SystemsManure Nutrient ManagementKeep Cattle CleanDressing % and Hide Discounts
4TYPES OF HOUSING Dirt Lot - No Shelter Conventional - Bedded Manure PackSolid Floor ConfinementSlotted Floor ConfinementDeep PitFlush Flume with Lagoon
5DIRT LOTMost common in western U.S. where annual rainfall is less than 25 in.Northern regions may include windbreaks.Pens usually contain 100 to 200 cattle1000 sqft/hd if level & no mounds400 sqft/hd + 25 sqft/hd on mounds, if level150 sqft/hd +25sqft/hd on mounds, if well drained
6DIRT LOT (continued) About 20% of Michigan feedlots are of this type. Very few of these will be of this type in the future due to environmental concernsEasy to expand areaUsually have fenceline feedbunksCost is about $50 to $100/hd. capacity
7CONVENTIONAL Cattle have access to shelter + outside lot Inside area is bedded (2 to 3 lb. of straw/hd daily. Manure pack accumulates.Outside lot is scraped weekly and manure pack is removed 2 to 4 times per year.Most smaller midwestern feedlots are of this type. 43% of Michigan feedlots.
8CONVENTIONAL (cont.) 20 sqft. inside + 30 sqft. Outside Cost of construction is about $ 150/head of capacity.Can have fenceline feedbunk or other mechanized delivery system.
9SOLID FLOOR CONFINEMENT Cattle are confined to a building with 100 to 200 head per pen. 26% of Michigan feedlotsManure scrape/manure pack - scrape concrete near feedbunk + manure packSolid floor scrape - no bedding, clean weeklySloping floor with gutter cleanerRequires about 30 sqft/hd.Cost about $ 175 to $ 200/hd capacity
10SLOTTED FLOOR CONFINEMENT Highest Cost (about $350 to $400/hd capacity). 12% of Michigan feedlots.Cattle stay cleaner and have a higher dressing percentage.Deep Pit - manure storage under cattle.17 to 20 sqft./headClean pit 2 times per yearLow labor & Fits farming schedule
11SLOTTED FLOOR (continued) Flush flume systemrequires a lagoon for nutrient storage.Storage is not under the cattleWorks well is less populated areas where cropland is nearby.
12FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE System Dirt Lot Conventional Manure Scrape Slotted FloorUniversity of MinnesotaADG DM/GAIN(similar feed rations)
13HANDLING FACILITIES Essential for safety of workers and cattle. Design can be very simple but should be able to sort cattle easily.Curved chute with solid sides is best.Chute width should be 26 in. wide or “V” shaped with 16 in. at floor.Should be able to catch heads & restrain for treatment or processing.
14SICK PENS & ISOLATIONNeed pen space for 2 to 5% of herd at any one time.Allow 40 to 50 sqft. per head.Should be located near handling facility but away from healthy cattle.
15WATER Need source of fresh water. One automatic waterer is usually designed to accommodate up to 40 head/day.Need to be able to supply up to 15 gal. Of water per head per day in hot weather.
16FEEDER SPACE If animals all eat at once. If feed is always available. 14 to 22 in. per head for calves < 600 lbs.22 to 26 in. per head for 600 lbs to market.26 to 30 in. per head for mature cows.If feed is always available.4 to 6 in. for hay or silage rations3 to 4 in. for grain rations
17NUTRIENT MANAGEMENTManure needs to be viewed as a resource to be utilized rather than as a waste product to be disposed of.Issues include:Collection & StorageTransportation & ApplicationOdorRecord Keeping
19NUTRIENT MGT. ISSUESAnalyzing feeds and balancing rations will prevent feeding nutrients in excess of animal requirements.Soil test results will assist in planning application of manure.Michigan is a “Phosphorous” based state.Michigan has a “Right to Farm” law which protects well managed farms from law suits.
20NUTRIENT MGT. ISSUESGAAMP’S = Generally Accepted Agricultural Management PracticesCNMP’S = Comprehensive Nutrient Management PlansAccounts for production and application of nutrients.Accounts for crop utilization of nutrients.Record keeping is essential.
21MANURE RECORD KEEPING Type Consistency Volume Location Time in storage Time and location of applicationSoil test results
22FUTURE ISSUESConcentrated Animal Feeding Units will be required to have permits.New facilities will be required to meet local zoning and setback distances in site plans.Odor is being monitored and “modeled” by agricultural engineers.Drainage and runoff must be controlled.