Presentation on theme: "BEEF FEEDLOT FACILITIES By David R. Hawkins Michigan State University."— Presentation transcript:
BEEF FEEDLOT FACILITIES By David R. Hawkins Michigan State University
Basic Animal Requirements Fresh Air Fresh Feed and Water Protection from Extremes (Heat or Cold) –Windbreak –Sun Shade Reasonably Dry Place to Lie Down
Why Feedlot Buildings? Land Utilization Labor Utilization Large Inventory of Cattle to Manage Mechanization of Feeding Systems Manure Nutrient Management Keep Cattle Clean –Dressing % and Hide Discounts
TYPES OF HOUSING Dirt Lot - No Shelter Conventional - Bedded Manure Pack Solid Floor Confinement Slotted Floor Confinement –Deep Pit –Flush Flume with Lagoon
DIRT LOT Most common in western U.S. where annual rainfall is less than 25 in. Northern regions may include windbreaks. Pens usually contain 100 to 200 cattle –1000 sqft/hd if level & no mounds –400 sqft/hd + 25 sqft/hd on mounds, if level –150 sqft/hd +25sqft/hd on mounds, if well drained
DIRT LOT (continued) About 20% of Michigan feedlots are of this type. Very few of these will be of this type in the future due to environmental concerns Easy to expand area Usually have fenceline feedbunks Cost is about $50 to $100/hd. capacity
CONVENTIONAL Cattle have access to shelter + outside lot Inside area is bedded (2 to 3 lb. of straw/hd daily. Manure pack accumulates. Outside lot is scraped weekly and manure pack is removed 2 to 4 times per year. Most smaller midwestern feedlots are of this type. 43% of Michigan feedlots.
CONVENTIONAL (cont.) 20 sqft. inside + 30 sqft. Outside Cost of construction is about $ 150/head of capacity. Can have fenceline feedbunk or other mechanized delivery system.
SOLID FLOOR CONFINEMENT Cattle are confined to a building with 100 to 200 head per pen. 26% of Michigan feedlots –Manure scrape/manure pack - scrape concrete near feedbunk + manure pack –Solid floor scrape - no bedding, clean weekly –Sloping floor with gutter cleaner Requires about 30 sqft/hd. Cost about $ 175 to $ 200/hd capacity
SLOTTED FLOOR CONFINEMENT Highest Cost (about $350 to $400/hd capacity). 12% of Michigan feedlots. Cattle stay cleaner and have a higher dressing percentage. Deep Pit - manure storage under cattle. –17 to 20 sqft./head –Clean pit 2 times per year –Low labor & Fits farming schedule
SLOTTED FLOOR (continued) Flush flume system –requires a lagoon for nutrient storage. –Storage is not under the cattle –Works well is less populated areas where cropland is nearby.
FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE System Dirt Lot Conventional Manure Scrape Slotted Floor University of Minnesota ADGDM/GAIN (similar feed rations)
HANDLING FACILITIES Essential for safety of workers and cattle. Design can be very simple but should be able to sort cattle easily. Curved chute with solid sides is best. Chute width should be 26 in. wide or “V” shaped with 16 in. at floor. Should be able to catch heads & restrain for treatment or processing.
SICK PENS & ISOLATION Need pen space for 2 to 5% of herd at any one time. Allow 40 to 50 sqft. per head. Should be located near handling facility but away from healthy cattle.
WATER Need source of fresh water. One automatic waterer is usually designed to accommodate up to 40 head/day. Need to be able to supply up to 15 gal. Of water per head per day in hot weather.
FEEDER SPACE If animals all eat at once. –14 to 22 in. per head for calves < 600 lbs. –22 to 26 in. per head for 600 lbs to market. –26 to 30 in. per head for mature cows. If feed is always available. –4 to 6 in. for hay or silage rations –3 to 4 in. for grain rations
NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Manure needs to be viewed as a resource to be utilized rather than as a waste product to be disposed of. Issues include: –Collection & Storage –Transportation & Application –Odor –Record Keeping
PRIMARY NUTRIENTS Nitrogen (N) Phosphorous (P 2 O 5 ) Potassium (K 2 O) Other Micro-nutrients Organic Matter
NUTRIENT MGT. ISSUES Analyzing feeds and balancing rations will prevent feeding nutrients in excess of animal requirements. Soil test results will assist in planning application of manure. Michigan is a “Phosphorous” based state. Michigan has a “Right to Farm” law which protects well managed farms from law suits.
NUTRIENT MGT. ISSUES GAAMP’S = Generally Accepted Agricultural Management Practices CNMP’S = Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans –Accounts for production and application of nutrients. –Accounts for crop utilization of nutrients. –Record keeping is essential.
MANURE RECORD KEEPING Type Consistency Volume Location Time in storage Time and location of application Soil test results
FUTURE ISSUES Concentrated Animal Feeding Units will be required to have permits. New facilities will be required to meet local zoning and setback distances in site plans. Odor is being monitored and “modeled” by agricultural engineers. Drainage and runoff must be controlled.