Presentation on theme: "Waste Handling for Poultry Production Lori Marsh, Associate Professor, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech."— Presentation transcript:
Waste Handling for Poultry Production Lori Marsh, Associate Professor, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
The design of the waste handling system for turkeys or chickens depends upon whether the goal is to produce eggs or meat. While there is no market for turkey eggs, there are turkey-egg-producing facilities, which provide pullets to be raised for meat.
Meat Production Birds are typically raised in confinement, on a bedding material such as sawdust. The building is cleaned out periodically and the resulting litter (bedding plus manure) is stored until it can be land applied.
A litter storage shed allows producers to land apply litter when the nutrient content is of most benefit to crops and when the chance of environmental degradation is low. Litter should not be applied to water- saturated or frozen ground.
Litter is land applied according to a nutrient management plan. Typically, application rates are based on the nutrient uptake of the crops to be grown. Historically, application rate was based on crop nitrogen uptake. However, that resulted in a build up of phosphorus in soils. Today, most nutrient management plans are based upon crop phosphorus uptake.
For egg production, the birds are typically caged to allow for easy egg collection. In these systems, there is no bedding material on the floor. Typically manure handling systems for layers include the following: 1)A belt collection system under the cages that removes manure to a storage facility; or 2) a collection/storage space below the cages where manure accumulates until it is removed; or 3) Flushing systems that use water to remove the manure to a lagoon for storage. Regardless of the handling system, the resulting manure is eventually land applied according to a nutrient management plan.
BMPs for Feed Management Feed formulated for life stage Phytase to reduce added P and excreted P Avoid feed spillage Avoid leaking waterers
Treatment Options for litter: –Additives Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Alum to reduce Ammonia emissions and P solubility –Composting –Pelletizing for commercial fertilizer –Burning for energy output for layer manure: –Anaerobic lagoons and digesters Solids separation before lagoon –Composting
BMPs for Land Application Nutrient Management Plan that includes Rate of application as a function of crop yield, land nutrient status, manure nutrient content Timing of applications Buffers Setbacks Calibration of application equipment