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Manure Handling Systems & Composting Options Teresa Dvorak Livestock Nutrient Management Specialist Dickinson Research Extension Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Manure Handling Systems & Composting Options Teresa Dvorak Livestock Nutrient Management Specialist Dickinson Research Extension Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manure Handling Systems & Composting Options Teresa Dvorak Livestock Nutrient Management Specialist Dickinson Research Extension Center

2 Animal Manure Management System Functions z Collection-Initial gathering of manure from animal confinement area z Transport-Movement of manure after collection z Storage-Containment until treatment or utilization z Processing-Solids separation, moisture adjustment z Treatment-Anaerobic, Aerobic z Utilization-Land application

3 Manure Handling Options SOLID Moisture < 70% to handle mechanically LIQUID Moisture > 90% to handle hydraulically

4 Manure “as excreted” cannot be effectively handled as a solid or liquid

5 100% 80% 70% 50% 0% Solid 90% 96% 90% 70% Can handle as a solid, depending on type of bedding added Standard irrigation equipment Manure pumping equipment Semi-slurry “As excreted” 87-89% Water Dairy, Beef, Swine 75% Water Poultry Percent Water

6 Difference in solid vs liquid Approx. available nutrient values of animal manures (lbs/ton). SolidLiquidSolidLiquidSolidLiquid SpecieNNP2O5P2O5 P2O5P2O5 K2OK2OK2OK2O Dairy1122714920 Beef251822 Swine13271319915

7 Manure Handling Systems By Specie: Beef Dairy Swine

8 Beef Cow-Calf “Pasture” Systems

9 Backgrounding on Pasture


11 Beef “Feedlot” Systems

12 Midwestern Feedlot

13 Dairy Waste Management Systems z Liquid Storage – Lagoon, Holding Pond, Tank z Dry-Pack Systems - Mechanical Collection

14 Dairy Waste Management Systems z Dry-Stack Systems – Mechanical Collection z Pasture Systems – Confined only in parlor

15 Swine Waste Management Systems z Shallow Pit Recharge – Lagoon Storage z Deep Pit Collection – Under House Pit Storage z Gutter Flush – Lagoon, holding pit z Hoop Structure Housing – Dry Manure in Hoop z Outdoor systems

16 Manure Treatment/Processing z Solid separator z Anaerobic digester

17 Solid separator z Advantages  Increases handling flexibility  Extend time between cleanout of lagoon (control odor), decrease sludge buildup  Solids can be hauled farther z Disadvantages  Solid and liquid handling equipment needed  Solid separation may not be cost effective for small operations

18 Anaerobic digester z Biochemical degradation converting OM (manure) into methane and by-products z Covered anaerobic lagoon – 2% solids, warm climates only z Complete mix – 3-10% solids z Plug flow – 11-14% solids, not swine z Odor control

19 Manure Application Techniques Applying Solid Manure z Load with front end loader  Truck mounted beater  Flail or spinner-type spreader boxes  Pull-type spreaders z Limitations  Spreader size  Distance

20 z Liquid manure  Agitate before and during  Pump from storage to hauling equipment z Limitations  Pump flow rate  Volume of tank  Distance Manure Application Techniques

21 z Spreading Liquid  Conventional tank wagon  Box-type spreader for liquid z Drag hose  Injected and incorporated immediately  Continuous flow advantage  Distance can be disadvantage z Lagoon  May or may not be agitated  Effluent removed by pumping (irrigation equipment) Manure Application Techniques

22 Composting z Natural breakdown of organic matter z Controlled decomposition  Speeds the process  Improves the quality of the product

23 Advantages of composting Manure z Reduces weight and volume z Easier handling characteristics z Reduce/eliminate pathogens and weed seeds z Reduce odors z Stabilize nitrogen z May create a saleable product

24 Function of Microbes z Feed on organic matter z Consume oxygen z Produce heat z Produce carbon dioxide z Produce water vapor

25 Compost Process Water OM Minerals Water Microbes Raw Materials Heat Finished compost OM Minerals Water Microbes CO 2 O2O2 Compost Pile

26 Optimum Conditions for Composting z Balance between carbon and nitrogen z Adequate oxygen z Moisture z Temperature

27 C/N Ratio z C/N ratio low – Excess N is lost as ammonia z C/N ratio high – Microbes lack sufficient N and composting is slow

28 Optimum C/N Ratio? z Composting microbes assimilate C z Need starting ratio of 30/1 or 40/1

29 Optimum Oxygen Level z Composting microbes require at least 5% z Optimum is 10% or more z Atmosphere is 21% z Insufficient oxygen?  Anaerobic decomposition, little heat produced, slow composting  Produces methane and other odorous compounds

30 Optimum Moisture z 40-65% water z Composting results in water vapor  Start on the wetter side

31 Composting Temperature z 50-105°F Mesophilic bacteria  Slow process, anaerobic organisms z 105°F and higher – Thermophilic bacteria  Ideal composting temperatures

32 Ideal Composting Temps z 110-150°F z 131°F destroys pathogens z 145°F destroys weed seeds z Over 150°F may kill beneficial microbes

33 Composting Technologies z Static piles z Windrow composting z Passively aerated windrows (PAWS) z Forced aeration, static piles z Enclosed (in-vessel) composting z Vermicomposting (worms)

34 Windrow Composting z Windrow 10 feet wide and 5 feet high z Rise and then fall of temp indicates time to turn  Adds oxygen may need water z No longer reheating - allow to cure

35 Composting Mortalities z Alternative to rendering, burying or incineration z Advantages  Environmentally safe  Conserves nutrients  Low odor z Disadvantages  High initial cost  Labor (monitoring and maintenance)

36 Mortality Management z Surround dead animal with >12 inches of bulking agent (straw or sawdust) z Maintain moisture content of bulking agent z Anaerobic microbes work on carcass z Odorous gases diffuse into bulking agent where aerobic composting takes over

37 z Compost is turned when temps drop  Attain 130 to 150°F z Allow at least one more heating cycle z 7 to 24 week process  Animal size Mortality Management

38 Thank you

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