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Sampling and Analysis Soil, Manure, and Water Sampling and Analysis Leticia S. Sonon Ag and Env Services Laboratories March 31, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Sampling and Analysis Soil, Manure, and Water Sampling and Analysis Leticia S. Sonon Ag and Env Services Laboratories March 31, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sampling and Analysis Soil, Manure, and Water Sampling and Analysis Leticia S. Sonon Ag and Env Services Laboratories March 31, 2009

2 Agenda  Manure testing Sample collection Sample collection Tests to request Tests to request Reports Reports  Soil testing Sample collection Sample collection Tests to request Tests to request Reports Reports  Groundwater monitoring monitoring Lagoon sample Soil sampler

3 Why Test Soil and Manure? Know the soil fertility status Know the soil fertility status Know the fertilizer value of the manure Know the fertilizer value of the manure These are the basics for Comprehensive Nutrient Management Planning (CNMP) and Waste Utilization.

4 Manure Testing When? When?  Near to the time of application as possible  >1000 animal units (AU) – semi-annual  >3000 AU - quarterly for swine operations How? How?  Depends on the type of manure and manure handling system  Procedures differ for lagoon effluent, liquid slurry, lagoon sludge, and solid manure.

5 Lagoon Effluent Lagoon Effluent Semiannually for operations over 1000 au Quarterly for swine operations over 3000 au Collect what you intend to pump for crop irrigation; no mixing of the lagoon. Where possible, collect effluent from the spray-system at the point of application. Grab eight 1-pint samples throughout a spray-irrigation event and composite into a plastic bucket. Mix bucket contents and fill a 1- pint bottle for lab analysis.

6 Lagoon Effluent Lagoon Effluent (continued) When samples cannot be taken from the spray- system, collect 8 grab samples at least 6 feet from the lagoon bank and at a depth of about 1 foot or whatever would represent the material pumped for irrigation. When samples cannot be taken from the spray- system, collect 8 grab samples at least 6 feet from the lagoon bank and at a depth of about 1 foot or whatever would represent the material pumped for irrigation. Avoid floating debris. Avoid floating debris. Never use galvanized buckets. Never use galvanized buckets. Tightly cap the manure sample bottles and check for leaks. Tightly cap the manure sample bottles and check for leaks. Rinse or wipe off any manure from the outside of the container. Rinse or wipe off any manure from the outside of the container.

7 Alternative Lagoon Effluent Sampler float steel pipe plastic tubing

8 thrown into lagoon

9 sample collection using a suction pump suction pump suction reservoir

10 Liquid Slurry If you agitate your storage pond or lagoon, samples can be collected with the equipment and procedure used for lagoon effluent. If you agitate your storage pond or lagoon, samples can be collected with the equipment and procedure used for lagoon effluent. If you don’t agitate, use the composite sampling device illustrated here. If you don’t agitate, use the composite sampling device illustrated here. Composite Sampling Device

11 Lagoon Sludge Lagoon Sludge (two methods) Method One Method Two Pump lagoon down to the sludge layer. Pump lagoon down to the sludge layer. Agitate and collect a slurry-type sample using the liquid sampler described for sampling lagoon effluent or slurry. Agitate and collect a slurry-type sample using the liquid sampler described for sampling lagoon effluent or slurry. You will need a boat or floating dock. Insert a pipe to the bottom of the lagoon. Seal the surface end and extract the pipe from the lagoon. Deposit the sludge portion into a bucket. Composite sub- samples from various locations around the lagoon.

12 Handling Liquid Manure Samples Container Container  Clean 1-pint plastic wide-mouth bottle  NO GLASS Filling Filling  Leave 1-inch headspace for gas expansion and to facilitate mixing at the laboratory. Storage Storage  Preferably ship or deliver samples immediately after sampling.  However, refrigerate or freeze samples that cannot be immediately shipped or delivered to the laboratory.

13 Solid Manure Solid Manure Stockpiled, Surface-scraped, or Composted Composite at least 6 or more cores that represent the average moisture content. Core samples to a depth of at least 18 inches. Sub-sample a 1-quart portion into a plastic- bag for the lab. Don’t overfill. Refrigerate if samples are stored for more than 2 days. Solid Manure Sampling Device

14 Sampling In-house Litter Previous sampling recommendation: Collect at least 10 to 12 one pint samples throughout the house, combine and mix them in a plastic bucket, and place one quart into a plastic bag for submission to the laboratory.

15 Research on N content shows that… Center of the house Around the feeders Around the drinkers % Average Minimum Maximum  Around feeders, N was 25% higher than from center of the house and 21% higher than from around drinkers (30 samples)  N varied as much as 48% around drinkers

16 Therefore…  It is not recommended to sample litter while still being used as a bedding layer in the poultry house.  Wait until clean out to sample after mixing the litter by scraping it into a pile. Then, follow the procedure given below for sampling litter from piles, stockpiles, or spreader trucks.  If sampling of litter is necessary in the house prior to clean out, use the sampling procedures as originally provided.

17 Solid Manure: Tests to Request Total nitrogen (N) Total nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Potassium (K) Sulfur (S) Aluminum (Al) Iron (Fe) Boron (B) Copper (Cu) Manganese (Mn) Zinc (Zn) EssentialOther Tests Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium (Mg) Sodium (Na) Sodium (Na)

18 for Nutrient Management and Reg. Compliance Non-swine and swine except new and expanding swine operations over 3000 AU Nutrients listed for solid manure Nutrients listed for solid manure In Addition Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) Nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) Nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) Ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 -N)- not Ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 -N)- not required on your permit but good for predicting available nitrogen Liquid Manure Test (Lagoon Effluent)

19 Liquid Manure Test (Lagoon Effluent) Liquid Manure Test (Lagoon Effluent) for new and expanding swine operations over 3000 AU 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) Ammonia-Nitrogen (NH 4 -N) Ammonia-Nitrogen (NH 4 -N) Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO 3 -N) Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO 3 -N) pH pH Quarterly Monitoring

20 Nitrogen Analysis Total Nitrogen by Combustion for Solids Total Nitrogen by Combustion for Solids  All forms of Nitrogen  Organic-N  Ammonium-N  Nitrate + Nitrite-N Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen for Liquids Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen for Liquids  Only Organic-N + Ammonia-N  Total-N is TKN + NO 3

21 Lagoon sampleLitter sample

22 Solid Manure Report  Units provided on UGA reports are  Percent  Pounds per ton  Phosphorus and potassium are reported as  P 2 O 5 (P 2 O 5 divided by 2.29 = P)  K 2 O (K 2 O divided by 1.20 = K)  All concentrations are reported on an “as received” basis and not on a “dry matter” basis.

23 Solid Manure Report Litter Broiler % lbs/ton

24 Liquid Manure Report  Units provided on UGA reports are  Parts per million (ppm)  Pounds per 1000 gallons  Pounds per acre inch  Phosphorus and potassium reported as  P 2 O 5 (P 2 O 5 divided by 2.29 = P)  K 2 O (K 2 O divided by 1.20 = K)

25 Lagoon - Dairy Liquid Manure Report ppm lbs/1000 gal lbs/acre-inch

26 Soil Testing When? When?  Annually  Fall is a good time, but samples can be taken during any season.  For year to year comparisons it is best to sample at approximately the same time each year.

27 Where to Soil Sample Divide large fields according to obviously different:  soil types  management  drainage  crop productivity  slope  erosion. Collect separate samples from these smaller areas. Composite 10 to 20 soil cores while traveling in a zigzag pattern.

28 How to Collect Soil Sample depth Sample depth  plowed fields  6 inches  or plow depth  no-till or pastures  4 inches Composite 10 to 20 cores in a plastic bucket and mix well. Composite 10 to 20 cores in a plastic bucket and mix well. Fill a 1-pint soil test bag that has been clearly labeled with the field identification and the area within that field that this sample represents. Fill a 1-pint soil test bag that has been clearly labeled with the field identification and the area within that field that this sample represents.

29 Basic Soil Test Phosphorus (P) Phosphorus (P) Potassium (K) Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Magnesium (Mg) Zinc (Zn) Zinc (Zn) pH pH Lime requirement Lime requirement

30 Soil Nitrogen Tests for residual soil nitrogen are usually not able to reliably predict available soil nitrogen and crop response. Tests for residual soil nitrogen are usually not able to reliably predict available soil nitrogen and crop response. Therefore, recommended nitrogen amendments are based on long-term research conducted to determine the nitrogen rates that produce the optimum yield for specific crops and forages. Therefore, recommended nitrogen amendments are based on long-term research conducted to determine the nitrogen rates that produce the optimum yield for specific crops and forages.

31 Soil Extractants Mehlich I (P, K, cations, micronutrients) Mehlich I (P, K, cations, micronutrients)  Georgia and other Southeastern States Mehlich III (P, K, cations, micronutrients) Mehlich III (P, K, cations, micronutrients)  many other labs Bray-1 (P only) Bray-1 (P only)  older extractant may still be used by some labs Olsens (P only) Olsens (P only)  used by Western States on calcarious soils

32 Soil Test Reports (Not a P Index) Soil test results are concentrations of nutrients that are extracted from your soil using extractants designed to measure various forms of each nutrient. Soil test results are concentrations of nutrients that are extracted from your soil using extractants designed to measure various forms of each nutrient. These concentrations are know as “Soil Test Indices.” These concentrations are know as “Soil Test Indices.” These “Soil Test Indices” are correlated to crop or forage yield and then calibrated using fertilizer trials so that they can be converted into a pounds per acre fertilizer recommendation. These “Soil Test Indices” are correlated to crop or forage yield and then calibrated using fertilizer trials so that they can be converted into a pounds per acre fertilizer recommendation.

33 Soil Fertility Recommendations Nitrogen is based on forage or crop species and management. Nitrogen is based on forage or crop species and management. P and K are based on “Soil Test Indices”. P and K are based on “Soil Test Indices”. Recommended N, P, and K may be supplied from either Recommended N, P, and K may be supplied from either  Commercial fertilizer  Animal manure  Lagoon effluent  Green manure crops  Or a combination of sources.

34 Test Questions?

35 Questions Why is manure tested for developing a CNMP? Why is manure tested for developing a CNMP? When should manures be sampled for lab analysis? When should manures be sampled for lab analysis? How should manure be sampled? How should manure be sampled? How do you calculate the rate of manure to apply? How do you calculate the rate of manure to apply? Why should soil be tested when developing a CNMP? Why should soil be tested when developing a CNMP?

36 Questions How should soil samples be taken in the field? How should soil samples be taken in the field? Which nutrients are measured in the routine soil test? Which nutrients are measured in the routine soil test? Which nutrients are of primary environmental concern and why? Which nutrients are of primary environmental concern and why?

37 Monitoring Well Testing

38 Who must do groundwater Monitoring? Animal feeding operations over 1000 animal units Animal feeding operations over 1000 animal units

39 Agenda Well location Well location Well construction Well construction Monitoring requirements Monitoring requirements Sampling and analysis Sampling and analysis Guidance documents Guidance documents

40 Locating Wells Up-gradient wells Up-gradient wells  Up-gradient monitoring is not required in the swine or non-swine rules  But, a minimum of three wells are needed to determine the gradient of the groundwater  In many cases the groundwater gradient will follow the slope of the land surface, but not always Down-gradient wells  At least 25 feet from the outer down- gradient edge (toe) of the lagoon or manure storage structure  Should not be installed into fill material  Into the shallowest saturated zone that is  the first saturated water bearing unit  saturated year- round

41 Stay Away From: Septic tanks – 50 ft Septic tanks – 50 ft Leach Fields – 100 ft Leach Fields – 100 ft Dead animal burial pits – 150 ft Dead animal burial pits – 150 ft Animal or fowl enclosure – 100 ft Animal or fowl enclosure – 100 ft Pesticide storage, mixing, or loading – 100 ft Pesticide storage, mixing, or loading – 100 ft Fertilizer storage – 100 ft Fertilizer storage – 100 ft Petroleum storage – 100 ft Petroleum storage – 100 ft

42 Using Existing Wells Must be in the water bearing unit influenced by the lagoon or spray field Must be in the water bearing unit influenced by the lagoon or spray field  If used for a down-gradient well it must be immediately down-gradient of the water bearing unit influenced by the lagoon or spray field. Must be approved by the Georgia EPD Must be approved by the Georgia EPD

43 Well Construction Details are in EPD’s Manual for Groundwater Monitoring. Details are in EPD’s Manual for Groundwater Monitoring. Must be installed by a licensed well driller that is supervised by a licensed geologist or professional engineer Must be installed by a licensed well driller that is supervised by a licensed geologist or professional engineer Following installation you should have: Following installation you should have:  well log  land surface contour map

44 Monitoring Requirements (Except new and expanding swine operations over 3000AU)ParameterFrequencyTolerance Holding Times Nitrate-N(mg-N/L)Twice/Year10 14 days Total Kjeldahl-N (mg TKN/L) Twice/Year- 28 days 28 days Depth to Groundwater (not required) Twice/Year- On-site On-site

45 New and expanding swine operations over 3000 AUParameterFrequencyTolerance Holding Time Specific Conductance Quarterly-On-site Nitrate-NQuarterly 10 mg/L 28 days pHQuarterly 1 pH unit change On-site Depth to Groundwater Quarterly-On-site

46 Written Sampling Plan Procedures for sample collection Procedures for sample collection Sample preparation and collection Sample preparation and collection Analytical procedures Analytical procedures Chain-of-custody Chain-of-custody

47 Sampling Procedure Measure water depth. Purge well  bail dry  or bail three well volumes.

48 Sampling Procedure (continued) Allow well to recover. Allow well to recover. Collect sample for Collect sample for  TKN  nitrate-N.

49 Guidance Documents Manual for Groundwater Monitoring. Manual for Groundwater Monitoring. Monitoring Well Construction for Hazardous-Waste Sites in Georgia Monitoring Well Construction for Hazardous-Waste Sites in Georgia Rules and Regulations for Water Quality Control Rules and Regulations for Water Quality Control The Water Well Standards Act of 1991 The Water Well Standards Act of 1991

50 Locating These Documents These documents can be found at the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. These documents can be found at the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Contact: Thomas E. Hopkins, 4220 International Parkway, Atlanta, GA Contact: Thomas E. Hopkins, 4220 International Parkway, Atlanta, GA Phone: (404) or (404) Phone: (404) or (404)

51 Test Questions?

52 Questions  What monitoring parameters are required by the Animal Feeding Operations Permit on lagoon effluent and groundwater?  How frequently must wells be sampled?  What well monitoring parameter needs to be determined on-site?

53 Questions  Where is the proper location for the monitoring well?  Who is responsible for constructing the monitoring wells?  How many wells are required to determine the groundwater gradient?


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