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Environmental Impacts Dr. Bruce T. Bowman Chair, CARC Expert Committee on Manure Management April 30, 2002 Waterloo, Ontario ManureNet

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Impacts Dr. Bruce T. Bowman Chair, CARC Expert Committee on Manure Management April 30, 2002 Waterloo, Ontario ManureNet"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Impacts Dr. Bruce T. Bowman Chair, CARC Expert Committee on Manure Management April 30, 2002 Waterloo, Ontario ManureNet Livestock Manure Treatment Technologies:

2 IF managed properly… Valuable recycled nutrient source Excellent soil conditioner (biological) IF managed poorly… Nuisance waste Environmental liability What is the Value of Manure?

3 Some History Manure issues have challenged farmers for well over a century What has changed? Technology has advanced a lot … however … Same old issues … Odour Impacts on Water quality

4 Odour intensity Pathogen levels Nutrient excesses Large water volumes Greenhouse gas emissions What are the Major Issues?

5 Manure has not been actively treated Exception – composting Solid manure piles Accidental curing – less odour, pathogens Traditionally

6 Liquid systems - more popular since 1970s labour-saving – OK for moderate-size operations Recent trends in livestock operations Great increase in herd size Geographic concentration Problem issues Increased odour Excess water volumes – land application Nutrient accumulations – P & N The Current Situation

7 Constructed wetlands / filter strips Solid-liquid separation Composting Digestion (anaerobic, aerobic) Nutrient recovery/recycling Value-added processing Other Treatments Manure Treatment Technologies

8 Benefits Polishing run-off waste water from barn/milkhouse Reducing water volumes (evaporation) Drawbacks Possible ghg emissions Sediment buildup Nutrient accumulations (P) Significant area at farm site Cant handle high solids content Constructed Wetlands / Filter Strips

9 Variety of screens, filters, presses, settling beds Benefits Reducing water volumes – reduced storage Opportunities for nutrient partitioning Flexibility of use - transportation Drawbacks Possible problems if low solids content Cost – both liquid & solid handling equipment Solid-Liquid Separation

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11 Benefits Reduce water volumes Eliminate odour & pathogens, kill weed seeds Mature compost - low risk for water contamination Soil conditioner Drawbacks More Labour-intensive Considerable ammonia losses (open composting) Possible GHG emissions (open composting) Composting

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13 Odour Closed vessel - greatly reduce odours Ammonia emissions minimized Surface application of digested manure? Suitable for No-till operations? Pathogens Greatly reduced or eliminated GHGs Minimal GHG losses during treatment Methane captured and utilized Anaerobic Digestion

14 Nutrients Closed vessel, nutrients conserved Increased N content; better N:P ratio Neutral pH to reduce ammonia losses Nutrients more available for plant use 50% of carbon methane Eco- Efficiency Methane captured - heat or electricity Recycled energy Green power; distributed generation Energy independence, revenue source (power generation being privatized)

15 Anaerobic Digestion

16 Lagoon Additives (odour control) Generally not (cost)-effective at claimed rates Ozonation Reduce odours in air & in manure slurries Reduce pathogens in manure slurries Other Treatments

17 Phosphorus – non-renewal resource Re-cycle nutrients – sustainability issue 150 M t/yr P extracted & processed (85% Ag) Flexibility for nutrient utilization On-farm – limited by land base, NMP (P, N) Diverting off-farm, amendments/fertilizer Nutrient Recovery / Recycling

18 Integrated Waste Management System Integrated Farm Energy System (IFES)

19 Blending manure-based amendments Supplementing with mineral fertilizers Fertilizer vs amendment (guaranteed analysis) Pasteurizing Adding back specific microbes (disease control) Pelletizing Easier storage, transportation, application Value-Added Processing

20 Need to manage manure for: Soil conditioning value Nutrient value Energy content Value-added products Minimize negative environmental impacts Innovative partnerships for waste management Other Ag (food processors, rendering, deadstock) Municipal (residential wastes, sewage) Industrial (energy producers, commercial alcohol) Looking Ahead

21 Conference Announcement A National Conference and Exhibition on Integrated Solutions to Manure Management: Working Together on Challenges and Opportunities Location: Convention Centre London, Ontario September 11-13, 2002


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