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CULINARY 2 Bakeshop Ingredients. Using EXACT ingredients Unlike cooking, you MUST use exact ingredients when baking If a recipe/formula is not followed.

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Presentation on theme: "CULINARY 2 Bakeshop Ingredients. Using EXACT ingredients Unlike cooking, you MUST use exact ingredients when baking If a recipe/formula is not followed."— Presentation transcript:

1 CULINARY 2 Bakeshop Ingredients

2 Using EXACT ingredients Unlike cooking, you MUST use exact ingredients when baking If a recipe/formula is not followed precisely, the products taste and texture will be affected!  You can’t substitute the same amount of cake flour for bread flour ** to be a successful baker, you must understand how key ingredients work together**

3 Wheat Flour The main ingredient in many baked goods  Proteins and starch in flour give these products structure  The classification of flour is based on the type of wheat it comes from  Soft or hard

4 Hard Wheat Comes from kernels that are firm, tough, and difficult to cut Example: bread flour Has high protein content When mixed with water, certain proteins form gluten  The higher the protein content = the more likely it is to form gluten

5 Gluten A firm, elastic substance that affects the texture of baked goods  Makes bread dough strong and elastic  The dough would collapse

6 Soft Wheat Comes from a soft wheat kernel Has a low protein content Making it ideal for tender baked products such as cookies, pastries and cakes

7 Bread Flour Used in bread-making High gluten forming protein content  Allow bread to rise fully and develop a fine crumb  Give the bread chewier, firmer texture Examples: yeast breads, pizza, bagels

8 Cake Flour Lower in protein than bread flour and pastry flour Produces a softer and more tender product Bleached with chlorine to help produce a fine, white crumb in cakes

9 Pastry Flour The protein content is in between bread and cake flour Generally used in pie dough, cookies, muffins and quick breads

10 Liquids An essential part of baking  Most common liquids are:  Water  Milk  Cream  Can also be found in eggs, sugar syrups, butter = 15% water **Accurate measurement of liquids is important because too much of too little can affect the outcome of the baked product**

11 Water Most common liquids ingredient used in baking  Especially for breads Has many uses besides moistening dry ingredients  Water is necessary for gluten structure to form flour  Also used to adjust temperatures ** Because water is tasteless, odorless and colorless it doesn’t affect the flavor or color of baked goods and adds NO calories**

12 Milk and Cream Milk  Protein, fat and sugar content make it a valuable addition to baked products  Ice creams and custards  Improves the flavor and texture of bread and other baked goods

13 Some milk and cream improvements include: Yielding soft, rather than crispy, crust on items such as cream puffs or éclairs Adding more color and flavor to crusts when applied to the baking surface Extending shelf life by delaying staling.  The process by which moisture is lost

14 Continued… Dried milk solid are also used in baked goods  Non fat dried milk can be reconstituted with water or used dry Dairy products such as buttermilk, yogurt and sour cream are also used in the bakeshop  Have live bacteria that convert milk sugar into acid

15 Continued… Heavy cream  High fat content  Allows baked goods to tenderize  Cream is often whipped for toppings, chilled desserts and fillings for pastry cream

16 Fats During the baking process, fats surround the flour particles and prevent long strands of gluten from forming.  Tenderizes the baked good  Adds flavor, moistens, browns, leavens, and adds flakiness to the baked goods  Solid fats are referred to as: SHORTENING

17 Fats Continued… Purified oils are made solid by hydrogenation  Making oils solid by the addition of hydrogenation to the oil

18 Vegetable Shortening Generally think of solid, white, flavorless fat used for baking Made from purified oils that have been hydrogenated to make them solid and less likely to become rancid  Fairly high melting point  Good choice for frying, making cookies and cakes

19 Emulsified Shortening High- ratio shortenings  Allow the baker to add a high ratio of water and sugar to make a cake or icing  Look like creamy oils  Cakes will be extra moist, airy and tender  Will have a longer shelf life

20 Oil Fats that are extracted from plants  Soybeans  Corn  Peanuts  Cottonseed Liquid at room temperature Neutral in flavor and color because they are highly refined  Oil makes baked products more tender  Can be used in quick breads, pie crusts, doughnuts, chiffon cakes

21 Butter Unsalted butter is used in baking because of its pleasant flavor  Soft at room temperature, makes dough easier to handle  80% fat so it produces a less tender baked product than shortening

22 Margarine Typically hydrogenated vegetable oil with color, flavor and water added  Less likely to spoil than butter  Can be purchased salted or unsalted

23 Sugars and Sweeteners Add sweet and pleasant flavor to baked products Create a golden brown color Stabilize mixtures such as beaten egg whites Provide food for yeast in yeast breads Retain moisture = longer shelf life Tenderize baked products by weakening the gluten strands Serve as a base for making icings

24 Refined Sugars and Sweeteners Produced from sugarcane or sugar beets  Crushed to extract the juice  The juice is then filtered and gently heated to evaporate the water  Through a series of heated induced steps, the sugar is crystallized and then separated from the dark forms, molasses, to the more refined sugars.

25 Molasses Thick, sweet, dark liquid made from sugarcane juice  Premium grades have a golden brown color and a mild, sweet flavor  Lower grades are typically darker in color with a less sweet flavor. ** The stronger the color and flavor the more desirable it is in baked products **

26 Brown Sugar Soft textured mixture of white sugar and molasses  Can be light or dark in color  Must be stored in air tight containers to prevent moisture absorption

27 Turbinado Sugar Raw sugar that has been steam cleaned  Course crystals are blond colored and have delicate molasses flavor

28 Coarse Sugar Sanding Sugar  Large, course crystals that don’t dissolve easily  Used in doughnuts and cakes

29 Granulated Sugar Extra fine white sugar or table sugar Most commonly used sugar in the bakeshop Used in cooked icings, candies and other baked products

30 Confectioners’ sugar Powdered sugar  Granulated sugar that has been crushed into a fine powder  Contains about 3% corn syrup  Helps keep the sugar from clumping - Often used in uncooked icings and glazes and as a decorative “dusting” on baked products

31 Superfine Sugar More finely granulated than regular white sugar  Dissolved instantly  Prefect for making sweetened cold liquids  Example: meringues

32 Corn Syrup Produced from the starch found in corn  Starch removed from kernels and treated with acids to create a thick, sweet syrup  Does not crystallize easily so it is popular in jams, candies, frostings and jellies

33 Maple Syrup Adds unique flavor to baked products Made from the sap of a maple tree  Graded according to flavor and color  The lighter and milder the syrup the higher the grade it will receive

34 Honey Thick, sweet liquid made by bees from flower nectar  Widely used to give baked products a distinct and sweet flavor

35 Eggs 2 nd most important ingredient in baked products  Bakeshops use egg yolks instead of whole eggs when a richer, more tender product is desired

36 Functions of eggs Add structure Emulsification  Blend ingredients smoothly Aeration  Beaten or whipped eggs assist in the leavening because they trap air and expand when heated causing baked goods to rise Flavor Color

37 Leavening Agents A substance that causes a baked good to rise by introducing carbon dioxide or other gases into the mixture  Air  Steam  Baking soda  Baking powder  Yeast  Salt

38 Flavorings Include extracts and spices  Extracts  Liquid flavorings that contain alcohol  Mostly concentrated volatile oils or essences that are diluted with alcohol  Made by passing alcohol through the vanilla bean with little or no heat to extract the flavor  Spices  Add to the enhancement of food and baked goods  Mostly come from berries, bark, roots, flower buds, or seeds

39 Chocolate or Cocoa Add bold, bulky and unique flavor Made from the cocoa bean  Meat of the bean is roasted and ground into a thick substance called chocolate liquor  Unsweetened chocolate  Semi sweet chocolate  White chocolate  Cocoa powder  Dutch process cocoa powder

40 Mixing Batters and Dough Batters  Contain almost equal parts dry and liquid ingredients  Usually easy to pour  Cakes and muffins are examples Dough  Contain less liquid than batters  Easier to work dough with your hands

41 Ways to mix batters and dough Beating – agitating ingredients vigorously to add air Blending- mixing of folding together until they are evenly combined Creaming – vigorously combining softened fat and sugar to add air Cut in – mix solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain Folding – gently adding light, airy ingredients, such as eggs to heavier ingredients by using a circular motion

42 Continued… Kneading – working through dough with hand Sifting – passing dry ingredients through wire mesh to remove lumps Stirring- gently blending ingredients until they are combined Whipping- vigorously beating ingredients to add air

43 Hydrogenation What is hydrogenation:  How shortening is made:  How Honey is made:  How Sugar is made:  How Chocolate is made:   HOMEMADE PIZZA DOUGH:   Rolling out the pizza dough: 

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