Presentation on theme: "WHEAT KERNELS. STARCHES i. Cornstarch - Sets up similar to gelatin when cooked. Used to thicken cream pies and custards. ii. Waxy maize - Does not break."— Presentation transcript:
STARCHES i. Cornstarch - Sets up similar to gelatin when cooked. Used to thicken cream pies and custards. ii. Waxy maize - Does not break down when frozen. Has the same consistency hot and cold. Is clear when cooked. iii. Instant starches - pre-cooked or gelatinized. Used to thicken cold liquids. Used when heat is not recommended for the product.
FATS; SHORTENINGS, BUTTER,MARGARINES,OILS, LARD, To tenderize the product and soften the texture. Add moisture and richness. Increase keeping quality. Add flavor. Assist in leavening and flakiness. All fats act as shortenings because they shorten gluten strands.
SHORTENING Used to define solid fats that are white and tasteless. Regular shortening - has a good creaming quality, that a large quantity of air can be mixed into. Used in products that require the creaming method. Used for flaking pastries, biscuits. Unless a specific shortening is specified, regular shortening is used.
Emulsified shortening Used when the weight of the sugar in a cake batter is greater than the weight of the flour. This shortening spreads very well and is refered to as high-ratio shortening used in high ratio cakes.
Butter and Margarine Disadvantages harder to handle Butter is brittle when cold and soft at room temperature. Advantages Flavor Melting qualities The advantages often outweigh the disadvantages.
OILS Oils spread through a batter or dough too thoroughly and shorten too much. Not used often in baking. There are a few recipes that call for oils. Oils spread through a batter or dough too thoroughly and shorten too much. Not used often in baking. There are a few recipes that call for oils.
Lard The rendered fat of hogs. Since the development of modern shortening, it is not often used in bakeshop. enough said!
Everyone can stand to be a little sweeter! The Purpose: To add sweetness and flavor. To create tenderness by weakening the gluten structure. To give the crust color. To increase keeping qualities. To act as a creaming agent with fats Sugar, Sugar Are you as sweet as can be??
Refined Sugar - Sucrose Granulated Sugar: Regular granulated, Fine granulated, Table sugar, Very fine, Ultra Fine, Sanding, Coarse. 2.Confectioners’ Sugar Powdered Sugar, Icing Sugar, 10X is the finest, 6X is standard, 4X & XX for dusting.
Molasses and Brown Sugar 1. Molasses Concentrated sugar cane juice. Contains sucrose,other sugars, acids, and impurities. Sulfured molasses is a by product of sugar refining. Unsulfured molasses is specially manufactured. 2. Brown Sugar Is mostly sucrose Contains varying amounts of molasses. Darker grades contain more molasses. Due to the acid content,they can be used with baking soda, for leavening.
Corn Syrup A liquid sweetener consisting mainly of glucose. Cornstarch is converted into simple sugar compounds by enzymes. Use in candy making and some icings.
HONEY A NATURAL SUGAR CONSISTING LARGELY OF GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE, PLUS OTHER COMPOUNDS THAT GIVE IT FLAVOR. FLAVOR IS ITS MAJOR ADVANTAGE. IT CONTAINS ACID WHICH ALLOW IT TO BE USED WITH BAKING SODA.
Malt Syrup A natural sweetener made from a filtered, evaporated mash of ground corn and sprouted BARLEY.BARLEY Found in health-food stores, malt syrup has an earthy, full-bodied flavor and is 75 to 80 percent as sweet as honey. Malt syrup is used primarily for yeast breads. It provides food for the yeast and color to the crust in breads.
Liquids - water, milk, cream WATER The basic liquid in baking. Tap water is generally fine. Milk and Cream Whole milk, skim milk, buttermilk, dry milk solids Whole milk and skim are not interchangeable, because adjustments must be made for the fat content,
MILK AND CREAM Buttermilk is a sour milk that is slightly acidic, it is used therefore used with baking soda. Cream is not used often due to its high fat content. When used it is counted as a shortening as well as a liquid. Cream is used more often for fillings and toppings. Dry milk can be used for convenience and cost. Milk powder is measured with the dry ingredients and water is used as the liquid.
NOTE: Other ingredients contribute to the liquid content in a formula. Eggs, honey, butter, even flavorings such as vanilla.
1. Structure: The egg protein provides structure to the product because the proteins coagulate. Too many eggs can make the product tough or chewy, therefore the ratio of fats and sugar must be higher. 2. Emulsification of fats: Emulsifiers in the eggs help smooth batter, improve texture, and increased volume. 3. Leavening: When beaten, eggs trap air, which expands when heated. 4. Color: The yellow color of the yolk contributes to the color of the batter. The browning of the eggs also adds to the color of the product. What the egg can do for YOU!
5. Moisture: The water content in eggs is calculated as part of the total liquid. Whole eggs - 70% water Egg whites - 86% water Egg yolks - 49% water 6. Flavor. 7. Nutrition
Yeast Chemicals Air Steam Leavening Agents Produce gases that become trapped in the product, this produces volume, shape and structure
YEAST A microscopic plant. A living organism, sensitive to heat. Fermentation is the process by which yeasts produce carbon dioxide and alcohol, The release of gases produces the rising effect. Fresh Yeast Active Dry Yeast Instant Dry Yeast (Rapid / Quick rise) (for recipes with fresh yeast, substitute 1/2 the amount of active yeast.) YEAST A microscopic plant. A living organism, sensitive to heat. Fermentation is the process by which yeasts produce carbon dioxide and alcohol, The release of gases produces the rising effect. Fresh Yeast Active Dry Yeast Instant Dry Yeast (Rapid / Quick rise) (for recipes with fresh yeast, substitute 1/2 the amount of active yeast.)
1. Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) - moisture and acid cause the release of carbon dioxide gas which leavens the product. Products must be baked at once or the gases will escape and the leavening will be lost. Acids - honey, molasses, buttermilk, fruits, cocoa, and chocolate. Chemical Leaveners - gases are released by chemical reactions
2. Baking Powder - A combination of baking soda and acid. Does not rely on acids for leavening. More versatile. Single acting baking powder - requires only moisture. Used when product is to be baked immediately. Double acting - release some gas when cold, require heat to to complete the reaction. Are able to stand for longer periods of time before baking.
3. Baking Ammonia - (Ammonium Carbonate) Decomposes during baking to release carbon dioxide and ammonia gas. Only heat and moisture are required. Gas must be completely driven off. Only used for small products. Used when rapid leavening is reqired.
AIR - Incorporated through creaming and foaming. 1. CREAMING - the process of beating fat and sugar together to incorporate air. this is an important step in the baking process. 2. FOAMING - Beating eggs, with or with sugar to incorporate air. Foaming can be done with whole eggs or egg whites.
Steam Steam is the expansion of water. Steam is present in baking due to the moisture in the formula. Steam is the major leavener for puff pastry, cream puffs, pie crusts. Steam is produced rapidly at high temperatures.
Salt, Spices, Flavorings SALT: Strengthens the gluten structure to make it more stretchable. Inhibits yeast growth.Used to control fermentation. The quantity of salt must be controlled in the formula. SPICES: The most important spices: Cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves, ginger, caraway, cardamon, allspice, anise, and poppy seed. The best quality produce the best results. Should be measured by weight, unless a very small quantity.
CHOCOLATE / COCOA Derived from cocoa or cacao beans. Beans are roasted and ground, producing chocolate liquor. The fat in chocolate liquor is called cocoa butter. Cocoa is the dry powder when the chocolate liquor is separated into cocoa butter and powder.
Dutch Process Cocoa: Processed with an alkali. Darker, smoother, easily dissolved in water. Bitter / Unsweetened Chocolate: Straight chocolate liquor. Some cocoa butter may be replaced with a less expensive fat. Sweet/ Semi sweet chocolate: Sugar is added in varying amounts. Milk Chocolate: Sweet chocolate with the addition of milk solids Used primarily in candy making. It is softer and more difficult to bake with. Types of Chocolate