European Themes Changing Map – Nation-state giving up sovereignty to regional organizations Who belongs to the various groups? How do they feel about it?—Changing Identities of Nation and Region – What does it mean to be European?
European Membership Characteristics (Formal) 1.Stable Democracy (human rights etc) 2.“European” location 3.Market economy 4.Accept EU treaties
Informal European Characteristics High income Stable democracy High education levels Human rights protection – e.g. no death penalty Christian Material possessions (TV, cars, etc) Interest in politics (high turnout) “Green” attitudes High taxes: social community
NATO Members http://www.nato.int/multi/interactive- maps/NatoFlash_en.Cache.html Belgium (1949) Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxembourg United Kingdom United States Netherlands Norway Portugal Greece (1952) Turkey Germany (1955) Spain (1982) Poland (1999) Hungary Czech Republic 2004: – Bulgaria, – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania – Romania, – Slovakia – Slovenia
Applicants to NATO Albania Croatia Macedonia
Treaties pulling Europe together: many layers over time Coal and Steel Community 1952 EEC (European Economic Community) 1957 (Common market) – Expanded between 1973-1986 Single European Act 1987 – Removed remaining barriers to trade
Treaties pulling Europe together: coalescing union Treaty on European Union 1992 – “The Maastricht Agreement” – Common security – Common foreign policy – Blueprint for monetary union (Euro) New Members 1995: – Sweden, Austria and Finland – Rejected entry – Norway and Switzerland New Members 2004: – Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, – Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Applicants: – Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Turkey
Treaties pulling Europe together: coalescing union “Schengen” treaty 1999: Rules on freedom of movement “Fortress Europe” – Yes Iceland, Norway, – NOT Ireland, UK – “The Belgian Curtain”
What EU says about itself “The European Union (EU) is a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity….. It is not a State intended to replace existing states, but it is more than any other international organisation.” “The rule of law is fundamental to the European Union. “
five EU institutions European Parliament (elected by the peoples of the Member States); Council of the European Union (representing the governments of the Member States); European Commission (driving force and executive body); Court of Justice (ensuring compliance with the law); Court of Auditors (controlling sound and lawful management of the EU budget).
Europe: the big picture EU: 27 states Skeptics: Switzerland, Norway, Iceland Maybe ? – Croatia, Switzerland On very long finger – Turkey, Albania Euroland: 12 states Skeptics 3 states (UK, Sweden, Norway)
Irl75%Be.62%Ger.41% Lux.75%Gr.61%Fin.40% Ned.73%It.60%Swe34% Spa71%Den.53%Aus.33% Port64%Fra.49%UK25% Source: Eurobarometer 2000 Is your country’s membership in the EU a good thing ?
Bel85%Ger76%Irl56% It.85%Spa76%Dk.53% Ned85%Gre76%UK49% Fr85%Por66%Fin46% Lux79%Aus61%Swe45% Source: Eurobarometer 2000 Support for a common defense and security policy.
Overall support for EU membership: Good thing 49% Bad thing14% Not good nor bad28% Don’t know9% Overall support for a common foreign policy Yes64% No17% Don’t know19% European Support for Integration
Eastern Europe: New Europe meets Old Europe Geography History – Sense of cohesive identity – Historical antecedents in political realms – Austro-Hungarian legacies Depth of Communist Control Post Communist Policies – Cleaning house of Communists – Adopting a market economy Strategic welcoming
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