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©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved1 Philosophy of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport The love, study, and pursuit.

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Presentation on theme: "©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved1 Philosophy of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport The love, study, and pursuit."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved1 Philosophy of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport The love, study, and pursuit of wisdom, knowledge, and truth Chapter 4

2 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved2 Five Traditional Philosophies   Idealism — a philosophical theory advocating that reality depends on the mind for existence and truth is universal and absolute   Realism — the philosophical system stressing that the laws and order of the world as revealed by science are independent from human experiences   Naturalism — a belief that the laws of nature govern life and individual goals are more important than societal goals   Pragmatism — an American movement in philosophy emphasizing reality as the sum total of each individual’s experiences through practical experimentation   Existentialism — a twentieth-century philosophy that centers on individual choices and advocates that truth and values are uniquely personal

3 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved3 Idealism  Since reasoning and mental processes are important in understanding truth, the uses idealism in working with clients to set realistic goals, persist in their movement experiences, and realize that only by dealing with temporary discomfort can they recover as fully as possible.  Since reasoning and mental processes are important in understanding truth, the physical therapist uses idealism in working with clients to set realistic goals, persist in their movement experiences, and realize that only by dealing with temporary discomfort can they recover as fully as possible.  The idealist and the understand reality is more mental than physical, so helping elite athletes manage the mental side of putting a golf ball or kicking a field goal is vitally important.  The idealist and the sport psychologist understand reality is more mental than physical, so helping elite athletes manage the mental side of putting a golf ball or kicking a field goal is vitally important.

4 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved4 Realism  The uses the scientific method in investigating the effects of performance-enhancing drugs in order to understand positive and negative effects on the body.  The exercise physiologist uses the scientific method in investigating the effects of performance-enhancing drugs in order to understand positive and negative effects on the body.  Prior to beginning an exercise program, a will assess the capabilities of the client, and, as would a realist, continue to use measurements to determine progress made in achieving personal fitness goals.  Prior to beginning an exercise program, a personal trainer will assess the capabilities of the client, and, as would a realist, continue to use measurements to determine progress made in achieving personal fitness goals.

5 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved5 Naturalism  Lakes, mountains, and other outdoor settings provide a wealth of opportunities where use natural settings as learning laboratories so individuals can expand their skills while enjoying leisure time.  Lakes, mountains, and other outdoor settings provide a wealth of opportunities where recreation specialists use natural settings as learning laboratories so individuals can expand their skills while enjoying leisure time.  agree with the philosophy of naturalism and a readiness to learn as they instruct students in developmentally appropriate movement activities.  Physical education teachers agree with the philosophy of naturalism and a readiness to learn as they instruct students in developmentally appropriate movement activities.

6 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved6 Pragmatism  are quite pragmatic in understanding they must generate increased revenues from ticket sales, broadcast rights, corporate sponsorships, and private donations to adequately support their teams.  Athletic directors are quite pragmatic in understanding they must generate increased revenues from ticket sales, broadcast rights, corporate sponsorships, and private donations to adequately support their teams.  realize participants are practical and pragmatic about use of leisure time as they seek to enjoy pleasurable, convenient activities with friends, such as playing on a softball team or using walking trails  Directors of recreational facilities realize participants are practical and pragmatic about use of leisure time as they seek to enjoy pleasurable, convenient activities with friends, such as playing on a softball team or using walking trails

7 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved7 Existentialism   While health educators stress the importance of making selections of nutritious foods and physical educators emphasize engaging in daily physical activities, each individual makes choices with the full realization of the consequences of these choices on their health and well-being.   While an athletic trainer can inform an athlete about the rehabilitation program to be completed, athletes must accept personal responsibility and demonstrate self-discipline to complete the exercises and adhere to the rehabilitation programs to return to competition.

8 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved8 Idealism — Truth is universal and absolute   The mind is critical to all understanding since only through reasoning and mental processes can truth emerge.   Never-changing ideals comprise the ultimate reality.   Ideals, virtues, and truths are universal and remain the same regardless of how individuals may interpret them. Plato

9 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved9 Idealism — Truth is universal and absolute   The mind and the body are optimally developed simultaneously and as a whole, although physical activity is secondary to the development of the mind and thought processes.   The idealist believes there is one correct way to perform sports skills. Plato

10 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved10 Realism — Scientific laws are independent of human experiences   The scientific laws of nature determine what is truth.   The scientific method provides the process for acquiring and applying truth ( i.e., knowledge originates in the physical world but emerges through experimentation). Aristotle

11 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved11 Realism — Scientific laws are independent of human experiences   The physical education curriculum includes activities and experiences that enable students to understand the laws of the physical world.   Learning is subject centered and includes progressions, drills, and objective evaluation. Aristotle

12 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved12 Naturalism — Laws of nature govern life and individual goals   Truth and things valued exist within the physical realm of nature.   “Everything according to nature” means students learn and develop in and through nature.   Physical well-being enhances a readiness to learn mental, moral, and social skills. Rousseau

13 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved13 Naturalism — Laws of nature govern life and individual goals   Individualized learning occurs through self-discovery and exploration of one’s capabilities and interests.   Through problem-solving, students progress in skill development at their own rates. Rousseau

14 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved14 Pragmatism — Reality is a total of individual experiences   Ultimate reality must be experienced and is ever-changing rather than absolute.   Truth and values are functions of the consequences of the time and context.   Social responsibilities are essential as every individual functions with and contributes to society. John Dewey

15 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved15 Pragmatism — Reality is a total of individual experiences   Students develop social efficiency as they experience solving the problems of life and learn how to become better functioning members of society.   A student-centered curriculum encourages students to develop social and interpersonal skills and set and achieve personal goals. John Dewey

16 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved16 Existentialism — Truth and values are based on one’s experiences   Human experiences and individual determinism (choices) construct reality.   Each person’s experiences determine truth, which is uniquely personal.   An individual’s value system, which is uniquely chosen, is tempered by an understanding of social responsibility. Jean-Paul Sartre

17 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved17 Existentialism — Truth and values are based on one’s experiences   The desired educational outcome is the self-actualizing person, who must accept the consequences of actions taken.   Individualized activities in physical education and sport encourage creativity and self-awareness and personal responsibility for learning. Jean-Paul Sartre

18 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved18 Importance of the Body   Idealism — simultaneous development with the mind   Realism — emphasis on the whole individual   Naturalism — physical activity essential for optimal learning   Pragmatism — variety of activities for the effective functioning in society   Existentialism — freedom to choose activity and be creative

19 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved19 Curricular Focus   Idealism — teacher centered using examples as models; qualitative   Realism — subject centered; quantitative   Naturalism — individual readiness to learn   Pragmatism — student centered; based on individual differences   Existentialism — individual centered; based on self-realization

20 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved20 Importance of the Teacher   Idealism — model and example   Realism — orderly presentation of facts; learning through drills   Naturalism — guide and helper   Pragmatism — motivator, especially through problem solving   Existentialism — stimulator and counselor

21 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved21 Objectives   Idealism — developing personality and the mind   Realism — preparing students to meet the realities of life   Naturalism — developing the whole person   Pragmatism — helping students to become better functioning members of society   Existentialism — assisting students to become self-actualizing, independent beings

22 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved22 Methodology   Idealism — lecture; question-answer discussions   Realism — use of real-world drills, lectures, and projects   Naturalism — informal; problem solving   Pragmatism — problem solving   Existentialism — questions raised, thoughts provoked, and freedom of action encouraged by the teacher

23 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved23 Evaluation   Idealism — subjective; qualitative   Realism — quantitative; using scientific means   Naturalism — based on the attainment of individual goals   Pragmatism — subjective and self- evaluation   Existentialism — unimportant in the traditional sense

24 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved24 Philosophy Quiz* 1. 1.The __________ advocates that students must indicate their readiness to attempt to learn a cartwheel The __________ models or provides demonstrations of exactly how to serve a volleyball The __________ encourages students to use reasoning powers to decide how to align defensive players to stop an opposing team from executing fast breaks.

25 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved25 Philosophy Quiz 4. 4.Since a curriculum based on this philosophy focuses on the individual, the __________ focuses on teaching acceptance of self- responsibility The __________ emphasizes learning team sports through which social skills are developed A physical education and sport researcher is sometimes called a/an __________ because she or he utilizes the scientific method of inquiry.

26 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved26 Philosophy Quiz 7. 7.To the _________ free choices determine reality and truth, such as in setting up a preferred type of exercise program The __________ advocates that reality is more mental than physical, such as perfecting shooting technique for free throws through mental practice Since experience is critical for learning to the __________, especially as a member of a group, students are encouraged to experiment with their own techniques in executing bodily movements.

27 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved27 Philosophy Quiz The __________ uses natural settings as learning laboratories during leisure hours.

28 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved28 Sport Ethics

29 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved29 The Ineligible Player Tomorrow your school’s girls’ basketball team will play in the state championship game. Everyone in the school and your small town is excited. A telephone call you just received from the new athletic director (Stacy Miller) suddenly threatens to change everything. Miller tells you Jody, the 24-points per game star, is too old. In completing some required paperwork for the state athletic association, she realized what the previous athletic director had not reported, which is that Jody has been 20 years old all season, thus making her ineligible for high school sports. You are distraught because you know Jody is from a single-parent home and has had past academic and behavioral problems in school. But, she has overcome these and changed since she joined the basketball team. Miller is willing to keep this matter quiet, but says as coach you will have to decide whether to play Jody in the game or even to play the game.

30 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved30 Understanding Ethics   Ethics is the study of moral values or the doing of good toward others or oneself; the study of the principles of human duty; the study of all moral qualities that distinguish an individual relative to others   Moral pertains to an individual’s motives, intentions, and actions as right or wrong, virtuous or vicious, or good or bad   Values are anything having relative worth

31 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved31   Moral values are the relative worth placed on virtuous behaviors.   Principles are universal rules of conduct that identify what kinds of actions, intentions, and motives are valued.   Moral reasoning is the systematic process of evaluating personal values and developing a consistent and an impartial set of moral principles by which to live.

32 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved32 Moral acting is how we act based on what we know and value. Moral reasoning is the systematic process of evaluating personal values and developing a consistent and impartial set of moral principles by which to live. Moral valuing is the basis of what we believe about ourselves, society, and others around us. Moral knowing is the cognitive phase of learning about moral issues and how to resolve them. Moral Acting Moral Valuing Moral Knowing Moral Reasoning

33 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved33 Example of Moral Values and Principles   Justice (treating others with fairness)   Do not violate the rules of the game   Honesty (being trustworthy)   Do not cheat or lie   Responsibility (fulfilling duty)   Do not act irresponsibly   Beneficence (fair play or doing good)   Do not harm an opponent

34 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved34 Moral Justification*   Try to make it seem that the unethical action is really ethical, such as by claiming there is no rule against it, no one will ever know, or everyone else does it.   State that the action is not unethical since the action harmed no one or no foul was called or penalty assessed.   Argue that while a rule was violated, the situation along with the amount of good accomplished overshadowed the small amount of harm; that is, the end justifies the means. *Stoll & Beller (2006) p. 79

35 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved35 Ethical Theories   Teleological or consequential (utilitarianism) theories focus on the end results or consequences of processes or occurrences; the ultimate standard of what is morally right is dependent on the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.   Deontological or non-consequential (Kantian) theories state that actions must conform to absolute rules of moral behavior; there is an inherent rightness apart from all consequences.

36 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved36 Ethical Principles   Moral duties are prescriptive and independent of consequences.   Fair play means playing within the letter and spirit of the rules.   Seeking to win is acceptable only if the letter and spirit of the rules are followed.   An opponent is not the enemy but a worthy athlete deserving to be treated exactly as everyone would wish to be treated.

37 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved37 Ethical Principles   Retribution is never acceptable regardless of the unfairness or violence of the initial action.   Games are not played to intimidate; the ideal purpose is a mutual quest for excellence through challenge.   Sportsmanship requires modesty, humility in victory, praise for the winners, and self-respect in defeat.

38 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved38 Is This Conduct Ethical? A defensive back is beaten by the opposing wide receiver, resulting in a big play for the offense. On a subsequent play, the defensive back “takes out” his opponent with vicious blind side hit to the knees, even though he is not involved with action near the ball. Is this hit ethical? If not, how should this intimidation be punished?

39 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved39 Is This Conduct Ethical? In his first at-bat after his grand-slam home run, Mike is prepared for a brush-back pitch. He is not ready for the inside fast ball aimed straight at his head. He attempts to bail out of the batter’s box but is hit by a pitch on the arm. He jumps up and charges the mound, bat in hand, as both benches clear. The ensuing brawl results in the ejection of several players from the game. Why is the brush back pitch seemingly an acceptable form of gamesmanship in baseball? Does a ball thrown at a batter’s head justify his charging the mound? Why are teammates expected to join in the fray?

40 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved40 Is This Conduct Ethical? The shoving match underneath the basket has escalated without any fouls being called. Finally, Mary has had enough. The next time Pat pushes her to clear the lane, Mary grabs her and refuses to give ground. Pat retaliates by hitting Mary. Before the referees can break up the scuffle, punches from several players have landed. Who is violating the rules of the game and sportsmanship in this situation? Is the absence of a whistle calling a foul on Mary, Pat, or both tantamount to condoning their intimidation of each other?

41 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved41 Ethical Choices in Sports 1. 1.Should every child get an opportunity to play all positions in youth sports? 2. 2.Should a coach have the right to require that an athlete (at any age) compete in only one sport? 3. 3.Should an athlete be required to pass all school subjects in order to play on a team? 4. 4.Should a coach teach athletes how to violate a sports rule to gain a competitive advantage? 5. 5.When, if ever, should a team “run up the score” on an opposing team? 6. 6.Should taunting an opponent be penalized or allowed and why? Does the level of sport matter?

42 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved42 COMPETITIVE GREATNESS POISECONFIDENCE CONDITIONSKILLTEAM SPIRIT SELF-CONTROLALERTNESSINITIATIVEINTENTNESS INDUSTRIOUSNESSFRIENDSHIPLOYALTYCOOPERATIONENTHUSIASM SUCCESS FAITH FIGHT RESOURCEFULNES S ADAPTABILITY AMBITION RELIABILITY INTEGRITY HONESTY SINCERITY PATIENCE “When the going gets tough, the tough get going.” Be at your best when your best is needed. Real love of a hard battle. Just being yourself. Being at ease in any situation. Never fighting yourself. Respect without fear. Confident not cocky. May come from faith in yourself in knowing that you are prepared. Mental - Moral - Physical. Rest, exercise, and diet must be considered. Moderation must be practiced. Dissipation must be eliminated. A knowledge of and the ability to properly execute the fundamentals. Be prepared. Cover every detail. An eagerness to sacrifice personal interests or glory for the welfare of all. The team comes first. Emotions under control. Delicate adjustment between mind and body. Keep judgment and common sense. Be observing constantly. Be quick to spot a weakness and correct it or use it as the case may warrant. Cultivate the ability to make decisions and think alone. Desire to excel. Ability to resist temptation and stay with your course. Concentrate on your objective and be determined to reach your goal. There is no substitute for work. Worthwhile things come from hard work and careful planning. Comes from mutual esteem, respect, and devotion. A sincere liking for all. To yourself and to all those dependent upon you. Keep your self-respect. With all levels of your co- workers. Help others and see the other side. Your heart must be in your work. Stimulate others. Through prayer Good things take time (effort & hustle) (proper judgment ) (to any situation) (properly focused) (others depend upon you) (speaks for itself) (in all ways) ( makes friends) THE PYRAMID OF SUCCESS John R. Wooden Former Basketball Coach UCLA Success is peace of mind which is a direct result of self-satisfaction in knowing you did your best to become the best that you are capable of becoming.

43 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved43 The driving force for cheating within sport is to gain a competitive advantage. Some athletes and coaches behave as if they will do whatever it takes to win. This may mean intentionally teaching, learning, and executing actions in violation of the rules. For example, in basketball near the end of a closely contested game, athletes on the team with fewer points intentionally foul opposing athletes hoping the free throws will be missed and possession of the ball can be regained and more points scored to try to win. Most would argue this is good strategy. How is an intentional rule violation congruent with the spirit of the rules? The concept of moral callousness suggests that over time individuals can grow hardened, such as when athletes make less morally reasoned decisions the longer they are involved with sports. To emphasize how intentionally fouling at the end of the game to stop the clock illustrates moral callousness, consider how the game was played decades ago. This type of rule violation did not occur, and the intentional grabbing or hacking of an opponent to prolong the game would have been viewed as unsportsmanlike. Has the perception changed because the strategy might help win the game? Is it good sportsmanship for a football player to fake an injury near to get the clock stopped? Some state this is cheating, while others argue this is good strategy. Has moral callousness in some sports changed intentional rule violations into good strategy?

44 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved44 Problems with the Moral Reasoning of Athletes   The longer athletes participate in sport, the lower their moral reasoning.   Males have lower levels of moral reasoning than do females.   Team sport athletes show lower levels of moral reasoning than do individual sport athletes.   The moral reasoning of interscholastic athletes is less consistent, impartial, and reflective than is that of non-athletes. Groupthink occurs when a team or group of athletes emphasizes agreement rather than the courage to make morally reasoned decisions.

45 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved45 Character Counts!   Six pillars of character   Trustworthiness — be honest; do not cheat; be reliable; have the courage to do the right thing   Respect — be considerate of the feelings of others; do not threaten, hit, or hurt anyone   Responsibility — do what you are supposed to do; be self-disciplined   Fairness — play by the rules; do not take advantage of others   Caring — be kind; be compassionate; show you care   Citizenship—be cooperative; obey laws and rules

46 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved46 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics — Champions of Character   Instill an understanding of character values in sport   Core values   Respect   Responsibility   Integrity   Servant leadership   Sportsmanship   Provide practical tools for student-athletes, coaches, and parents to use in modeling exemplary character traits

47 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved47 It Really Is Not Only about Winning!   Olympic Creed — "The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered, but to have fought well."   “For when the One Great Scorer comes to mark against your name, He writes not that you won or lost but how you played the Game.” (Grantland Rice)


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