Building the Program. Keys to a Quality Curriculum What is worthy of student learning? What is worth student time and effort? –Standards do not identify.
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Presentation on theme: "Building the Program. Keys to a Quality Curriculum What is worthy of student learning? What is worth student time and effort? –Standards do not identify."— Presentation transcript:
Keys to a Quality Curriculum What is worthy of student learning? What is worth student time and effort? –Standards do not identify what should be taught or how it should be delivered Standards identify what students should know and be able to do as a result of instruction
Unpacking the Standards Conceptual level –Intention of the standard? –Interpretation of the standard? –Why is this standard here? Implementation level –Selection of Curriculum model –Best activities to facilitate learning
Unpacking the Standards When developing a curriculum, the team must define what each standard means at the various grade levels How will the standard be assessed across grade levels?
Sample Unpacking Personal and Social Behavior: Standard 5 Sport education model –Following routines with independent warm-up –Exhibiting fair play by calling rule infractions Outdoor education –Working cooperatively in groups –Demonstrating respect for teammates
Philosophy Personal teacher beliefs and values Shared beliefs and values of program “Goods” of quality program –What should students gain? –What will your program represent?
Traditional Philosophy: Idealism Underlying Concept: –Reasoning and intuition help people find truth Use of scientific methods –The mind and spirit are keys to life Educational emphases: –Development of moral and spiritual values –Learning is self-initiated –Development of personal qualities of self-reliance, self- direction –Teacher guides development of creativity
Idealism Implications for physical education/sport pedagogy: –Education must contribute to intellectual development –Play and recreation are important for a well-balanced personality –Activities are centered on ideals such as courage, honesty, fair play –Reflective thinking and analysis of problems are more important than knowledge-based information
Traditional Philosophy: Realism Underlying Concepts: –The mind and body have a close, harmonious relationship that are inseparable –The laws of nature are within physical events –The scientific method helps to determine truth Educational Emphases: –Education is objective (teaching, testing, eval) –Learning proceeds in a step-by-step fashion –Measurement techniques are standardized
Realism Implications for physical education/sport pedagogy: –Physical fitness is valued because of the intrinsic contributions to one’s desire for increased productivity –Learning process emphasizes drill and orderly progressions –Desirable social behaviors can be developed although winning is not stressed
Traditional Philosophy: Naturalism Underlying Concepts: –The physical world is key to life –Everything we experience is a part of nature Educational Emphases: –Satisfy basic needs of the individual –The learning process is governed by the individual’s developmental readiness –Physical and moral development is as important as cognitive development –Teacher guides by demonstration –Rewards can shape behavior
Natualism Implications for physical education/ sport pedagogy: –Activities are a part of overall, holistic development –Play resulting from the interests of students teaches desirable social behaviors –Develop the whole person at their own rate –Self-improvement rather than competition –Teacher must know their student needs and developmental level
Traditional Philosophy: Pragmatism Underlying Concepts: –Experience is the only way to seek truth –Success is the only judge of value and truth of a theory Educational Emphases: –Learning occurs through experience –Education prepares students for their role in society –Education is child-centered rather than subject-centered –Problem-solving prepares students for place in real world –Education is to develop the total person
Pragmatism Implications for physical education/sport pedagogy: –Varied activities result in more meaningful experiences –Emphasis is on social interaction through activity –Needs and interests of student determine curriculum –Problem solving develops creativity –Teacher is the encourager; students learn by doing –Individual differences are stressed as learners prepare to go out into society
Traditional Philosophy: Existentialism Underlying Concepts: –Persons determine their own systems of values –People are what they cause for themselves Educational Emphases: –Discover one’s inner beliefs –Individualized learning is important because of individual rates of learning –Curriculum is centered on the individual who selects their own focus –Teacher facilitates discovery of students’ own truths/beliefs –Teach personal responsibility –Use affective learning even though difficult to measure
Existentialism Implications for physical education/sport pedagogy: –Choice of activity –Balanced and varied activities satisfy individual needs –Play is used to develop creativity –Self-testing helps students begin to know themselves –Teacher is the guide who shows activity options to students –Students are more responsible for their education
Program Philosophy A team of people will need to compromise on the philosophical approach to a curriculum –What does the team value? –How will standards be emphasized across the curriculum? Your personal philosophy will serve as a lens and guide interactions
Class activity K-23-56-89-12 Standard 1 Standard 2 Standard 3 Standard 4 Standard 5 Standard 6
Value Orientations Discipline mastery: Content focus –Instruction progresses from simple to complex Learning process: Problem-solving focus –Content delivery encourages constructivist learning Self-actualization: Student focus –Encourages individual growth and achievement is more important than mastery of content Social responsibility: Equity focus –Take responsibility for own behavior to learn about social justice Ecological integration: Holistic focus –Balances content, needs of learner, and social setting
Essentials for Curriculum Design Backward curriculum design –Begin with exit outcome What will happen in high school curriculum? What will happen in middle school curriculum? What will happen in elementary school curriculum? –Requires communication and articulation across levels Design down, teach forward